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自我介紹. 孫 國 洋 ( Didier Sun ) 苗 栗 人 東海大學 統計學系 走跳、喇滴賽、吃早餐. CHAPTER 4 Organizational Relationships . 任課老師:任 維 廉 老師 報 告 人:孫國洋 日 期: Nov.22.2012. OUTLINE. Organizational Ecosystems Resource Dependence Collaborative Networks Population Ecology Institutionalism Design Essentials

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自我介紹

  • 孫 國 洋 ( Didier Sun )

  • 苗 栗 人

  • 東海大學 統計學系

  • 走跳、喇滴賽、吃早餐


Chapter 4 organizational relationships

CHAPTER 4 Organizational Relationships

任課老師:任維廉 老師

報 告 人:孫國洋

日 期:Nov.22.2012


Outline
OUTLINE

  • Organizational Ecosystems

  • Resource Dependence

  • Collaborative Networks

  • Population Ecology

  • Institutionalism

  • Design Essentials

  • Discussion


1 organizational ecosystems
1.Organizational Ecosystems

  • Organizational Ecosystems

    • The systems formed by the interaction of a community of organizations and their environment.

  • InterorganizationalRelationships

    • Defined as the relatively enduring resource transactions, flows, and linkages that occur among two or more organizations.


1 organizational ecosystems1
1.Organizational Ecosystems

  • Is competition dead ?

    • Organizations are involved in complex networks, the number of corporate alliances are increasing.

    • Traditional competition no longer exists.

    • Companies find that they must co-evolve with others in the ecosystem.

    • In an organizational ecosystem, conflict and cooperation exist at the same time.


1 organizational ecosystems2
1.Organizational Ecosystems

  • Interorganizational Framework

    • From top-down management to horizontal management.

    • Relationships among organizations can be characterized by whether the organizations are similar or dissimilar, and whether the relationships are competitive or cooperative.


1 organizational ecosystems3
1.Organizational Ecosystems

Framework for Interorganizational Relationships

ORGANIZATIONS TYPE

Dissimilar

Similar

Resource Dependence

Population Ecology

Organizations Relationships

Competitive

Collaborative Networks

Cooperative

Institutionalism


2 resource dependence
2.Resource Dependence

  • Minimize the dependence on other organizations for important resources.

  • Influence the environment to make resources available.

  • Develop strategies to reduce dependence on the environment, and learn how to use their power differences.


2 resource dependence1
2.Resource Dependence

  • Strategies

    • Supply Chain Relationships

    • Power Implications


2 resource dependence2
2.Resource Dependence


3 collaborative networks
3.Collaborative Networks

  • Companies join together to become more competitive and to share scarce resources.

  • Why Collaboration?

    • A major avenue for entering global markets.

    • Involved in each other’s product design and production, and invest for the long term.


4 population ecology
4.Population Ecology

  • Organization Form and Niche

    • Form is an organization’s specific technology, structure, products, goals and personnel.

    • Each organization attempts to find a niche.

  • Process of Ecological Change


4 population ecology1
4.Population Ecology

  • Strategies for Survival

    • Competitive struggle for resources – struggle for existence

    • The breadth of the generalist’s domain serves to protect it somewhat from environmental changes

    • A company that provides a narrow range of goods or services or that serves a narrower market is a specialist


5 i nstitutionalism
5.Institutionalism

  • Institutional Perspective

    • Manage survival

    • Balance expectations of environment

  • Institutional Environment

    • Norms and values of stakeholders

    • Adopt structures and processes to please outsiders

  • Legitimacy

    • An organization’s actions are desirable, proper and appropriate


5 institutionalism
5.Institutionalism

  • Technical dimension

    • Work technology and operating requirements which is governed by norms of rationality and efficiency

  • Institutional structure

    • Organization most visible to the outside public which is governed by expectations from the external environment


5 institutionalism1
5.Institutionalism

  • Emergence of common structure and approachamong like organizations.

  • Mimetic Forces

    • The pressure to copy or model other organizations

  • CoerciveForces

    • Pressures for organization to adopt structures, techniques or behaviors similar to other organizations.

  • NormativeForces

    • Pressure to adopt standards and techniques of professional community.


6 design essentials
6.Design Essentials

  • Four perspectives have been developed to explain relationships among organizations.

  • The 2. collaborative-network perspective is an emerging alternative to 1. resource dependence.

  • The 3. population-ecology perspective explains why organizational diversity continuously increases with the appearance of new organizations filling niches left open by established companies.

  • The 4. institutional perspective argues that inter organizational relationships are shaped as much by a company’s need for legitimacy as by the need for providing products and services.


7 discussion
7.Discussion

  • 四個觀點通用於所有關係?

  • 如何選擇結盟對象與結盟企業?


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