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Chapter 13 Safety of Food and Water. OUTLINE – FOOD Safety. Egg & Deli Meet Recall. Food Borne Illnesses. Preservation of Food. Food Additives. Natural & Synthetic Toxins. Pesticides use vs Organic Food. Water Safety & Avoiding Microbial discomfort. Egg & Now Deli Meet Recalls.

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slide2
OUTLINE – FOOD Safety

Egg & Deli Meet Recall

Food Borne Illnesses

Preservation of Food

Food Additives

Natural & Synthetic Toxins

Pesticides use vs Organic Food

Water Safety & Avoiding Microbial discomfort

egg now deli meet recalls
Egg & Now Deli Meet Recalls
  • 500 million eggs! – Voluntary recall
    • Contaminated with Salmenella
    • 1,000 cases of salmonella poisoning linked to eggs from Wright County Egg and Hillandale farms.
    • U.S. Food and Drug Administration
  • 380 million lbs. Deli Meat recalled
    • Also Contaminated with bacteria

http://www.cnn.com/video/

http://today.msnbc.msn.com/id/26184891/vp/38813211#38813215

http://ac360.blogs.cnn.com/blog/

eggs recall
Eggs Recall
  • Compare Safeway vs Free range eggs
    • Notice the thickness of the shell difference
      • Right off. . ..
      • Quality (Caged vs Free Range)
        • Free range, stronger harder shelled egg

~ Less Salmonella contamination b/c of proximity

slide5
OUTLINE – FOOD Safety

Egg & Deli Meet Recall

Food Borne Illnesses

Preservation of Food

Food Additives

Natural & Synthetic Toxins

Pesticides use vs Organic Food

Water Safety & Avoiding Microbial discomfort

foodborne illness
Foodborne Illness

E. coli: O157:H7

  • Greatest risk from viral and bacterial contamination:
    • e.g. E. coli: O157:H7 (199 peo. 26 states fresh spinach (102 hospitalized, 31 kidney failure)
  • Major cause of diarrhea
  • Usually results from unsafe food handling in the HOME

Shiga Toxin

most susceptible to foodborne illness
Most Susceptible to Foodborne Illness
  • Infants and children
  • Older adults
  • Those with liver disease, diabetes, HIV/AIDS, cancer
  • Pregnant women
  • People taking immunosuppressant agents
foodborne illness1
Foodborne Illness
  • Why so prevalent?
  • Consumer interest in eating RAW foods
  • Grocery Foods mass produced at
    • Processing plants (see Food Inc. ~ the movie)
      • Malfunction Ice Cream Plant in Minnesota 

240,000 Salmonella Bacteria infections~ ice cream:

  • Ready to eat foods (foreign countries) e.g.
    • Berries (Guatemala)
    • Seafood (Asia)
  • Anti-biotics in animal feeds
    • bacteria develop anti-biotic resistant strains
      • Can grow even if exposed to typical antibiotic
slide10
OUTLINE – FOOD Safety

Egg & Deli Meet Recall

Food Borne Illnesses

Preservation of Food

Food Additives

Natural & Synthetic Toxins

Pesticides use vs Organic Food

Water Safety & Avoiding Microbial discomfort

preservation of food
Preservation of Food
  • Preventing growth of bacteria
    • Salt, sugar, smoke, fermentation, drying
    • Limit water available for bacteria growth
  • Pasteurization, sterilization, refrigeration, freezing, irradiation, canning, chemical preservation
  • Aseptic processing

Pasteurized: MILK & O.J.

Packaging using sterile conditions, kill all microbes (heat or chemical etc.)

food irradiation symbol on right
Food Irradiation(symbol on right)
  • (X-rays, UV-rays) - Does not make food radioactive
  • Breaks down chemical bonds, cell walls, DNA
  • Controls growth of insects, bacteria, fungi, parasites
  • Approved for use for raw meats, shell eggs, seeds, dried seasonings
  • Safe according to FDA? ~ free radicals generated . .
  • Radura symbol required
  • Used in many countries, although still controversial
why are microbes so harmful e g bacillus campylobacter clostridium vibrio salmonella
Why Are Microbes So Harmful?e.g. Bacillus, Campylobacter, Clostridium, Vibrio, Salmonella

Bacteria everywhere: 1 tsp. soil = 2 billion Bacteria !!!

Challenge Question

What are the TWO Ways that microbes cause food borne illness?

  • Infection:
    • Bacteria invade intestinal wall via toxin contained in organism

1.

2.

  • Intoxication:
    • Bacteria produce toxin that is secreted
    • into food digested upon eating,
    • e.g. Shiga toxin

Shiga Toxin

microorganisms and food borne illness
Microorganisms and Food Borne Illness
  • @ Constant risk of

foodborne illness

slide17
OUTLINE – FOOD Safety

Egg & Deli Meet Recall

Food Borne Illnesses

Preservation of Food

Food Additives

Natural & Synthetic Toxins

Pesticides use vs Organic Food

Water Safety & Avoiding Microbial discomfort

food additives
Food Additives?
  • Limit spoilage
  • Prevent undesirable changes in color & flavor
  • Increase safety of food distribution
food additive classifications
Food Additive Classifications
  • Intentional food additives
    • Added directly to food

e.g. (Yellow #5, BHT, sulfites, vit. C)

  • Incidental food additives
    • Indirectly added as contaminant (e.g., pesticide residues, rat poo)
  • Both are regulated by FDA
confirming your knowledge
Confirming your knowledge
  • What 4 compounds constitute 98% of all additives used in food processing (by weight)?
  • 1.
  • 2.
  • 3.
  • 4.

Sugar

salt

corn syrup

citric acid

gras generally recognized as safe list
GRAS (Generally Recognized As Safe) List
  • Manufacturers do not have to prove safety
    • Already regarded as safe,
  • FDA
    • Responsible for proving that a substance does not belong on GRAS list
      • red dye #3 removed (carcinogen)
  • Synthetic chemicals ≤ toxicity of natural products (Organic/ Natural ≠ safer)
safety of additives
Safety of Additives
  • Tested on at least 2 animal species
    • Mice, rats
  • Determine the highest dose that produces no observable effects (skin, inflammation etc.
  • Prorate dose to a human dose (1% of toxicity~ mice)
    • Divide dose by 100 to establish margin of safety
  • If additive is shown to cause cancer even at very low dose, it is taken off the market by FDA
    • Several exceptions (nitrates, nitrites  nitrosamines)
challenge question what is the delaney clause and what are exceptions
-Challenge Question-What is the Delaney Clause?And what are exceptions?

1958 ruling that Prevents the intentional (direct) addition to foods of a substance

that causes cancer

The use of nitrates and nitrites in processed meats (bacon, sausage etc.)

fda approval for new food additive
FDA Approval for New Food Additive
  • Must identify new additive
  • Give its chemical composition
  • State how it is manufactured
  • Specify method of measurement
  • Outline intended purpose
  • Provide proof of safety
  • Cannot to be used to deceive public
slide26
Nitrates/Nitrites

Proven to cause cancer

Still used b/c risk is low . .

slide27
High Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS)

~ high levels of Mercury (Hg)

~ High levels of Carbonyl compounds

(Methylglyoxal)

-shown to be high in people w/ Diabetes

Soda Warning? New Study Supports Link

Between Diabetes, High-fructose Corn Syrup

13-Aug-2007, Source:

American Chemical Society (ACS) - Newswise

(MSG)

USDA/FDA Recomendataion:

-eat foods of HFCS in moderation . . .

confirming your knowledge1
Confirming your knowledge
  • What is the permissible % amount of a food additive that has shown toxicity to laboratory animals that can be added to food?

1% of the highest amount that has no observable effect when fed to animals

slide29
OUTLINE – FOOD Safety

Egg & Deli Meet Recall

Food Borne Illnesses

Preservation of Food

Food Additives

Natural & Synthetic Toxins

Pesticides use vs Organic Food

Water Safety & Avoiding Microbial discomfort

natural toxins
Natural Toxins

Safrole

  • Occur naturally in foods
  • Safrole from sassafras, mace, nutmeg, cinnamon
    • (used in Root beer) Known carcinogen – Banned by FDA
  • Solanine from potato shoots
    • NIH on solanine: never eat potatoes green below the skin.
    • nausea, diarrhea, vomiting,
  • Mushroom toxins (phalloidin)
    • Death cap mushroom
    • Amanita phalloides
  • Avidin
  • Tetrodotoxin
  • Oxalic acid
  • Herbal teas

solanine

phalloidin

is caffeine a cause for concern
IS Caffeine a Cause for Concern?
  • Causes anxiety, dehydration, insommnia, increased heart rate
  • Cancers?
  • Worsens heartburn (relaxes sphincter muscles in esophagus)
  • Women ~500mg/day increased miscarriages
    • FDA: pregnant women ≤ 2 8oz coffee cup/day
  • Improves performance in top athletes
  • 200-300mg/day prudent dose, (2 cups coffee/day)
    • safe/sound for now

theobromine

caffeine

slide34
OUTLINE – FOOD Safety

Egg & Deli Meet Recall

Food Borne Illnesses

Preservation of Food

Food Additives

Natural & Synthetic Toxins

Pesticides use vs Organic Food

Water Safety & Avoiding Microbial discomfort

pesticides vs organic
Pesticides vs Organic
  • Most health authorities believe benefits

Outweigh risks (pesticide usage)

  • Most toxicity due to chronic vs acute cases
    • extremely small exposure levels avg. human
  • Growing evidence (contamination, destruction of wildlife habitats)
    • N. Americans should reduce pesticide use
    • (USDA + farmers working towards)
what is a pesticide
What is a pesticide?
  • Any substance/mixture intended to prevent, destroy, repel or mitigate any pest.
  • EPA allows 10,000 pesticides
    • (300 active ingredients)

glyphosate

  • e.g. Roundup: (glyphosate)
  • -most used herbicide in the USA
  • - #1 selling in world, 1980
  • - toxicity to developing embryos

Benachou et al., "Glyphosate Formulations Induce Apoptosis and Necrosis in Human Umbilical,

Embryonic, and Placental Cells2008,Chemical Research in Toxicology

not all pesticides bad
Not all pesticides = bad
  • e.g. fungicides prevent aflatoxin
    • By product of fungal growth
      • Most potent Deadly carcinogens

-Pesticides prevent billions of food crops destroyed annually

aflatoxin

how safe are pesticides
How safe are Pesticides?
  • Toxicity based on chronic exposures
    • Increased cancer in farm communities
      • Lymph, genital, brain, digestive cancers
  • Some argue pesticide laden food = safer

vs natural product toxins e.g. peanut butter (aflatoxin)

aflatoxin

confirming your knowledge how can you reduce your exposure to environmental toxins
Confirming your KnowledgeHow can you Reduce Your Exposure to Environmental Toxins?

0.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

slide40
OUTLINE – FOOD Safety

Egg & Deli Meet Recall

Food Borne Illnesses

Preservation of Food

Food Additives

Natural & Synthetic Toxins

Pesticides use vs Organic Food

Water Safety & Avoiding Microbial discomfort

water
Water
  • Bottled water
    • Distilled
    • Purified
    • Spring
    • Mineral
  • Public drinking water

Challenge Question-

What is a good way to limit heavy metal exposure in tap water from your faucet?

Why should you never run Hot water from the Tap to cook with?

avoiding microbes at the store
Avoiding Microbes at the Store
  • Buy frozen, perishable foods last
  • Place meats in separate plastic bags
  • Don’t buy dented cans
    • Clostridium botulinum toxin
      • Most toxic protein known
        • LD50 of roughly 0.005-0.05 µg/kg.
        • AKA Botox (inhibits Acetylcholine)
  • Buy only pasteurized milk/cheese
  • Buy only what you need (shop 1X week or bi-monthly)
    • buy Fresh
  • Avoid buying slimy, brownish, or dry produce
  • botulinum toxin
avoiding microbes at home
Avoiding Microbes At Home
  • Wash hands thoroughly
  • Keep counters, cutting boards, equipment clean and sanitized (dishwasher, or bleach it weekly)
  • Prepare raw meat separately
  • Thaw foods in refrigerator/cold running water/ microwave
  • Avoid coughing and sneezing over food
  • Wash fruits/vegetables thoroughly
  • Remove mold or discard food
  • Use refrigerated meat in 1-2 days;
    • frozen in 3-4 months
avoiding microbes when cooking
Avoiding Microbes When Cooking
  • Thoroughly cook meat, fish, poultry, eggs
  • Check for doneness with thermometer
  • Cook sprouts until steaming
  • Cook stuffing separately
  • Eat food right away
  • Store leftovers within 1-2 hours (bacteria growth)
  • Serve cooked meat on clean plates
  • Avoid partially cooking food
what to do with leftovers
What To Do With Leftovers
  • Keep hot foods hot & cold foods cold (<41° F or >135° F)
  • Reheat leftovers thoroughly

(165° F)

  • Store peeled, cut-up produce in refrigerator
  • Keep refrigerator < 41° F
  • Seal it in Tupperware or Ziploc
    • Less O2 for microbial growth . . .
assignments
Assignments
  • Diet Analysis 2 due Thursday (100 pts.)
  • Evaluations Friday
  • Practice Final Online w/ answers
  • Final Exam this Friday (Chapters 6, 8,9,10,13,16)
    • Challenge & Confirming Your Knowledge Qs (the above)
    • Old Final - know all Qs and answers
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