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School Education in Japan Elementary Schools Today

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  1. School Education in JapanElementary Schools Today Support Material

  2. Organization of the School Structure in Japan SOURCE: Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan: Web site

  3. Number of Schools, Students and Teachers in Japan(As of May, 2003: Correspondence course excluded) NOTE: In Japan, lower secondary and upper secondary schools are separated. SOURCE: Data from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan

  4. The Structure of School Management(example) Functional Organization Activity-based Organization Public Teachers' Mutual Aid Association Relations OB/OG Association Section PTA Administration of facilities and equipment Administration of the contact network General Affairs Section Clerical affairs (administration of documents, budget drafts, etc.) School Business Management Committee Traffic safety guidance Committee of teachers with School lunch guidance Health and designated responsibilities Environmental hygiene and creation of beauty in the school surroundings Safety Section Vice Teachers' Health guidance and regular health checks Principal meeting Principal Guidance on extra-curricular activities Daily Life Planning and guidance for all-school meetings and club activities Guidance Management and guidance of the "Children's Conference" activities Section Daily life planning and guidance within the school Research and Research presentations Entrance Ceremony Committee Implementation of teaching research Training Implementation of training outside subjects and subject areas Graduation Ceremony Section Committee Deciding on and administering school events Budget Committee Educational evaluation Educational Administration of register of enrolled children Affairs Preparation of grade management draft Section Deciding on education plans (yearly, monthly, weekly) Drawing up and submitting the curriculum SOURCE: JICA(2003) “The History of Japan’s Educational Development” pp.88

  5. Professional Duties of Designated Teachers SOURCE: JICA(2003) “The History of Japan’s Educational Development” pp.90

  6. School Health Activities ○Health issues covered by the subject curriculum of Physical Education and Health and Physical Education ○Health, safety and nutrition issues covered by other related subject Health Instruction curriculums ○Health, Safety and Nutrition issues covered by "Integrated Study Period " Health Education ○Health guidance through classroom/ homeroom activities ○Health guidance through school events Health Guidance ○Health guidance through student councils and club activities ○Individual guidance in health rooms and classrooms ○Health guidance through everyday school life School ○Health observation ○Health examination(Health Survey) Health ○Monitoring and guidance of students with Management ○Health consultation of physical health concerns and mental ○Prevention of infectious disease aspects Students' ○First Aid Health Management ○Monitoring and managing health aspects of students' daily life Management of life ○Management of school life Health    ・Organizing time tables and daily schedules appropriate for a healthy life Management    ・Play and sports during breaks    ・The psychological environment in the school Management ○Hygiene management of school environment Environmental of School    ・Hygiene inspection of school environment(Regular, Daily) Management Environment ○Beautification of school environment for a better psychology ○Establishing teachers' group and cooperation mechanism ○Cooperation with families Organizational ○Cooperation with other related institutions, organizations and schools Activities in the local area ○School Health Committee SOURCE: Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan: Web site

  7. Subjects and Standard Class Hours for Elementary Schools SOURCE: JICA(2003) “The History of Japan’s Educational Development” pp.152

  8. Timetable (example) SOURCE: Compiled on the basis of timetable in Kamitoba elementary school. Different subjects are allocated for Period 1 to 6.

  9. Authoring・Editing (Textbook Publishers) Year 1 Year 2 Examination(Minister of Education) Selection (Public schools:Boards of Education National & Private Schools:School principals) Year 3 Production (Textbook Publishers) Supply (Textbook Suppliers) Year 4 Use (Children) Textbook Authorization Process SOURCE: JICA(2004) Video “The History of Japans Educational Development”

  10. Lesson The existence of a “relational network of tensions” linking these three factors is a precondition for a good lesson Teacher Teaching Material Children SOURCE: JICA(2003) “The History of Japan’s Educational Development” pp.226

  11. Basic Flow of Learning Development (example) Confirmation of readiness Difficult points from previous lesson Express problem solving methods and ways of thinking Present lesson theme Have discussion on the basis of presentations Debate lesson theme Propose expectations or hypotheses Summarize learning content and methods Think of methods and solve problems Announce theme of the next lesson SOURCE: JICA(2003) “The History of Japan’s Educational Development” pp.192

  12. Plan for Blackboard Writing Date. Class period Name of teaching materials Name of first group to give presentation Particular points to watch out for or listen to during the presentation Discussion points on the presentation Name of second group to give presentation Particular points to watch out for or listen to during the presentation Discussion points on the presentation New topic SOURCE: JICA(2003) “The History of Japan’s Educational Development” pp.199

  13. Learning Styles and Their Characteristics SOURCE: JICA(2003) “The History of Japan’s Educational Development” P191

  14. Teaching Methods SOURCE: JICA(2003) “The History of Japan’s Educational Development” P191

  15. Types of Classrooms Science room Ordinary classroom Music room Visual arts & Handicrafts room Multi-purpose room Home-making room Special classroom for disabled children Facilities for Life Environmental Studies Classroom Special classroom Special activity room Education consultation room Common study space Broadcasting room Library Space for preparing and storing educational materials and teaching aids Audio visual room Computer room SOURCE: Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan, 2003, Guidelines for Upgrading of School Facilities (modified and translated)

  16. Criteria for Science Education Equipment for Elementary School SOURCE:JICA(2003) “The History of Japan’s Educational Development” pp.178

  17. Special Education(as of May 2001, at the compulsory education level) SOURCE: Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan Web site JICA(2003) “The History of Japan’s Educational Development”

  18. Standard for School Library Book Stock SOURCE: Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan, 2003, Standard for School Library Book Stock

  19. Moral Education SOURCE: Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan, 1999, Course of Study for Elementary School---- Moral Education

  20. Special Activities SOURCE: Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan, 1999, Course of Study for Elementary School---- Special Activities

  21. “Integrated Study Period” SOURCE: Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan, 1999, Course of Study for Elementary School---- General Provisions

  22. Life Environment Studies SOURCE: Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan, 1999, Course of Study for Elementary School---- School Life

  23. Lesson Study The Process of Lesson Study: Elaboration of the lessons through the continuous cycle of “Plan-Do-See” Study of Teaching Material(Plan) (Identification of themes, compilation of lesson plans) LessonStudy(Do) (Lesson implementation and observation) Lesson Discussion Meeting(See) (Lesson evaluation and reflection) SOURCE: JICA(2003) “The History of Japan’s Educational Development” pp.227

  24. Strong Points of School-Based Training • Has potential to deepen research on urgent problems faced by the school or the teacher. • Has potential to take research forward in the context of linking it with everyday school practice. • It is easy to utilize research results immediately for classroom practice. • Has potential to deepen joint research in context of smooth human relations. • It is easy to carry out research on the basis of relationship with parents or local community. SOURCE: JICA(2003) “The History of Japan’s Educational Development” pp.222

  25. The Significance of In-service Training for Teachers • Enhancing human qualities as educators • Acquiring high-level specialist knowledge and skills • Acquiring new teaching methods • Communication and assembling of information among teachers • Assembling information provided by the administration SOURCE: JICA(2003) “The History of Japan’s Educational Development”pp.221

  26. Types of In-service Training Provided by Different Bodies SOURCE: JICA(2003) “The History of Japan’s Educational Development” pp.219

  27. An Overview of Training Geared to Experience and Length of Service Objectives Training Format Training Content SOURCE: JICA(2003) “The History of Japan’s Educational Development” pp.219

  28. Constituent Ability Items and Training Examples Suited to Professional Ability Level SOURCE: JICA(2003) “The History of Japan’s Educational Development” pp.220

  29. Educational Administrative Bodies and Authorities SOURCE: JICA(2003) “The History of Japan’s Educational Development” pp.69

  30. Prefectural Schools Libraries Museums General Affairs Division Financial Affairs Division School Affairs Division Organization of the Board of Education Governor Educational Institutions (Appointment) Other Institutions Secretariat Board of Education Chairman Board members Supervisors Administrative staff Technical staff Other staff members (Appointment、 Supervision) Guidance Division Physical Education & Sports Division The Superintendent of Education Deputy Superintendent Lifelong Education Division (Management、Supervision of staff members) Cultural Affairs Division Benefits & Welfare Division Office of Education SOURCE: National Commission of Prefectural Education Boards Website (Translation)

  31. The Basis for Lesson Planning :Teaching Plan SOURCE: JICA(2003) “The History of Japan’s Educational Development” pp. 187

  32. Summary Diagram of Structured Lesson Design SOURCE: JICA(2003) “The History of Japan’s Educational Development”pp.187

  33. Individual Lesson Teaching Plan(Sample Format) Unit: ”(Lesson Theme)” Lesson Plan for Unit Lesson (Period) • Date and Time • Class • Unit Name (Lesson Title) • Objective of this Lesson • Lesson Development Plan • Plan for Blackboard Writing • Lesson Evaluation SOURCE: JICA(2003) “The History of Japan’s Educational Development”pp.198

  34. Organization Chart of a PTA(Example) General Meeting Management Committee Officers’ Committee Auditors Grade Representatives Committee Community Representatives Committee Specialist Committee Class Representatives Committee Educational Affairs Committee Health and Welfare Committee PR Committee SOURCE: JICA(2003) “The History of Japan’s Educational Development” pp.92

  35. An Example of School Calendar SOURCE: JICA(2003) “The History of Japan’s Educational Development” pp. 89

  36. How Teachers are Viewed in Japan Teacher as a Sacred Profession Teacher as a Worker Teacher as a Professional SOURCE: JICA(2003) “The History of Japan’s Educational Development” , diagram prepared based on the description in pp. 206

  37. Types of Teacher Certificate