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International Migration - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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International Migration. Immigration is not a new phenomenon . It dates back to the early stages of written history . Though migration is not new , it is accelerating as part of the process of global integration .

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Immigration is not a newphenomenon. Itdatesbacktotheearlystages of writtenhistory.

  • Thoughmigration is not new, it is accelerating as part of theprocess of global integration.
  • This is a reflection of therapidlychangingeconomic, politicalandculturaltiesbetweencountries.
the age of migration
TheAge of Migration
  • Currently, around 175 millionpeoplereside in a countryotherthanwheretheywereborn.
  • That is equivalentto 3 percent of theworld’spopulation.

Immigration:Themovement of peopleinto a countrytosettle.

  • Emigration:Toleave a countrytosettle in another.
  • Thetwowavestogetherproduceglobal migrationpatternsthat link countries of originandcountries of destination.
  • Immigration is now an importantissue in manycountrieswithsignificantsocial, cultural, economicandpoliticalrepercussions.
migration and the uk
Migration and the UK
  • Immigration to the British isles has existed throughout recorded history
  • Industrialization saw migration within the British Isles from the Celtic fringe and other rural areas to expanding urban centres
  • Migration from the near continent has occurred as groups have fled political and religious persecution
  • During the 1930s and 40s many fleeing Nazi expansion in mainland Europe fled to Britain

Risingimmigrationrateshavechallengedcommonlyheldnotions of nationalidentity;

  • Alsoforced a re-examination of concepts of citizenship.
  • Whatmight be some of theissuesregardingtheconcept of citizenship? (definiton of citizenship, grantingcitizenshiprights, dualcitizenship)
migration and the uk1
Migration and the UK
  • InBritain, Irish, blackandJewishcommunities had existedlongbeforetheIndustrialRevolution. But thesurge of newopportunitiesalteredthescaleandscope of internationalmigration.
  • New waves of Dutch, Chinese, IrishaandblackimmigrantstransformedBritishsociety.

Post-Second World War immigration primarily from Commonwealth nations to meet a need for unskilled workers

  • Immigration and asylum regulations tightened by successive governments since the 1960s
  • New migration sees free movement of labour between member states of the European Union

The spread of industrialization has alsotransformedmigrationpatterns in industrializingcountries.

  • Thegrowth of employmentopportunities in urban areasencouraged a trend towardsrural-urban migration.
models of migration
Models of Migration

Classic Model (Australia, US, Canada)

  • Nations built from immigration; citizenship extended to migrants

Colonial Model (Britain, France)

  • Favours immigrants from former colonies; builds on pre-established partial citizenship

Guest Worker Model (Germany, Swiss)

  • Immigrants admitted on temporary basis; no citizenship rights

Illegal Forms (Mexico-US border) (Undocumentedorpaperless)

  • Remaining beyond visa expiry/people smuggling
colonial model
Colonial Model
  • Following WWII, peoplefromCommonwealthcountrieswereencouragedandfacilitatedtogototheUK, which had a shortage of labor.
  • Inadditiontorebuildingthecountryandeconomyafterthedestruction of thewar, industrialexpansionprovidedBritishworkerswithmobility, creating a needforlabor in unskilledandmanualpositions.

TheBritishNationalityAct of 1948 grantedfavorableimmigrationrightstothecitizens of Commonwealthcountries.

  • Witheachwave of immigration, thereligiouscomposition of the UK changes. Britishcitiesbecamemultiethnicandreligiouslydiverse.
  • Immigrationbroughtnewquestionsaboutwhat it meansto be Britishandhowethnicandreligiousminorities can fullyintegrateintoBritishsociety.
asylum seekers refugees
Asylum-seekers / Refugees
  • To be grantedasylum, individualsmustclaimthatbeingforcedtoleavethecountrywould break obligationsthatthegovernment has underthe UN ConventionandProtocolrelatingtotheStatus of Refugees, whichobligessignatorynationstoprotectrefugeeswhoarefleeingpersecutionandtreatthem as well as otherforeignnationals on theirterritory.
recent global trends in migration
Recent Global Trends in Migration


  • Migration across borders in greater numbers


  • Most countries receive immigrants of different types


  • More countries involved as both senders and receivers


  • Global demand for domestic, care and sex workers
push and pull factors
Push and Pull Factors

Push factors: encouraging migrants to leave home country

  • Political oppression
  • War
  • Famine
  • Poverty
  • Population pressure
push and pull factors1
Push and Pull Factors

Pull Factors: factors drawing migrants to host nation

  • Employment opportunities
  • Higher standards of living
  • Lower population density

Pew Global Attitudes Project (2005)

  • Germany
    • 34% thoughtimmigrationfrom North AfricaandMiddle East was a “goodthing”
    • 57% thought it was a “badthing”
    • 66% disapproved of immigrationfromEasternEurope
global migration systems
Global Migration Systems

Interaction of micro and macro issues:

  • Micro: resources, knowledge and understandings of migrant population
  • Macro: political situation, immigration laws and regulations, shifts in the international economy
  • In his bookGlobal Diasporas (1997), Cohendefines diaspora as “thedispersal of an ethnicpopulationfrom an originalhomelandintoforeignareas, often in a forcedmannerorundertraumaticcircumstances”.
types of diaspora
Types of diaspora
  • Victim diaspora
  • Labor diaspora
  • Trading diaspora
  • Imperial diaspora
  • Cultural diaspora
characteristics of diaspora
Characteristics of diaspora
  • Movementfromhomeland
  • Sharedcollectivememory of homelandandbelif in thepossibility of return
  • Ethnicidentitysustainedover time anddistance
  • Sense of solidaritywithothermembers of thegroup