Technology Supports for distributed and collaborative learning over the internet Authors: Qing Li Rynson W. H. Lau Timothy k. Shih Frederick W. B. Li Presented by: Vikram Karnik
Distributed Learning ? • Distributed learning is an instructional model that allows instructor, students, and content to be located in different, noncentralized locations so that instruction and learning occur independent of time and place.
Collaborative Learning ? • Collaborative learning is an educational approach to teaching and learning that involves groups of learners working together to solve a problem, complete a task, or create a product. Collaborative learning is based on the idea that learning is a naturally social act in which the participants talk among themselves. It is through the talk that learning occurs .
Basic Concepts and Technology Issues Covered • Asynchronous and web-based learning • Synchronous and real-time distance learning • Mobile learning and Situated learning • Multimodal interaction and augmented devices for learning • Content management system and repository
Current Standard • SCORM Sharable Content Object Reference Model • Specification for standardizing the reusability and interoperability of learning materials. • It was developed by the Advanced Distributed Learning (ADL) . • SCORM focuses on defining a model for packaging learning content to facilitate content delivery. • It defines a standard way for e-learning systems to communicate with each other. • It requires the inclusion of metadata to describe the course content, facilitating efficient and effective identification of appropriate course materials
Technology Issues • System hosting: • Typical e-learning system needs to maintain and deliver course materials, track student progress, and support student collaboration. • Substantial workload with increase in number of users. One solution to this problem is use of distributed system technology. • Security control. • Solution is digital rights management by using certification of hardware or software, digital watermarking.
Technology Issues • System support for content delivery: • Contents may be requested dynamically through a variety of e-learning activities. • Delivery problems arise when multimedia data needs to be delivered. • From the content perspective, to accommodate the diversity of e-learning users, adaptation in content delivery must be taken to provide satisfactory services.
Technology Issues • Support for asynchronous learning mode: • Asynchronous learning mode provides students with great flexibility as they may choose to learn according to their own schedule. • users can set up collaboration areas and group the conversations based on date/time stamping or discussion topics, but as the conversation get larger in volume, it becomes much more difficult to extract relevant context. • Solution is using web mining techniques to trace the content, link structure, and usage of domain being searched.
Technology Issues • Support for synchronous learning mode: • Synchronous learning mode allows e-learning users to conduct collaborative learning in a shared workplace at the same time with interactive communication and instantaneous responses in learning tasks. • DVEs are the most demanding in terms of data transmission and interactivity requirements and due to lack of standardization One problem is how to identify and deliver relevant 3D objects while retaining system interactivity. • Solution is to adopt an on-demand distribution approach and a synchronization mechanism.
DISTRIBUTED CONTENT MANAGEMENT • The First-Generation CMS: Centralized collection of applications, and data stored on large mainframes. Most content in this approach was stored in diverse, noncompatible formats specific to the tools that generated it, even if that diverse content was managed on the same server. • The Second-Generation CMS: IBM was among the first to begin integrating data storage and data presentation technologies. The idea was to put all types of content into a single homogeneous environment on a central server and grant authorized personnel with controlled access to read or edit it. • The Third-Generation (3G) CMS: Information is no longer stored in a centralized mainframe, but fragmented across a number of personal computers located in different places.
Content Distribution Design Issues • Content partitioning: • Content replication and allocation: • Distributed content retrieval: • Distributed content maintenance:
Mobile Learning • Architectures for Mobile Learning. • Middleware for Mobile Learning. • Performance Considérations on Mobile Devices. • Adaptation of Learning Resources and User Interaction. • Content Reflow and Media Adaptation.
Situated Learning • Location-Based Services. • Situated Learning via Mobile Learning. • RFID for e-Learning Management.
Multimodal Interaction • Interactions can be achieved using gesture, speech, pointing devices, and even brain waves. • Advanced interactions usually need sophisticated devices, which are typically not mobile. • Multimodality can be implemented by binding and usage of different interface devices like speech recognition, keypad, and dedicated keys.
Augmented Devices for Learning • Augmented paper enhances ordinary hardcopy papers by adding hyper links to audio, video, and even Web sites. • uTable is a new approach for implementing a pen-based interaction table. An off-the-shelf projector with large viewing angle, hiding under the table, provides the rear-projection display content. A specially designed pen with a laser emitter at the nib serves as the interaction tool. • Wearable computer system typically contains a small computer, a helmet like device with a see through display, a microphone, and an earphone. The devices can be used in training and support mobile factory personnel.
Future Directions • Ubiquitous learning • Web 2.0 • Security challenges on the Internet • Structuring shared content and repositories • Applying structure while creating content
Future Directions • Distance learning on grid • P2P and online learning community • Intelligent tutoring and adaptive testing. • Further development in distance learning standards • Game-based learning.
Conclusion • Technologies and systems in this survey can be considered state-of-the-art, but it is anticipated that many new ones will emerge in time as the technologies evolve. • While most of the emerging technologies are Internet and Web dependent, there are also some issues/techniques which are orthogonal to the Internet and Web but pertinent to developing more “intelligent” and attractive distance learning systems.