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Rapid Mobile Phone-based (RAMP) survey. Changing the way we plan and manage health and development surveys Version September 10th 2012. Presentation overview. Introducing RAMP: an overview How does RAMP work? Stakeholder benefits RAMP survey sampling approach

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Rapid Mobile Phone-based (RAMP) survey


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    1. Rapid Mobile Phone-based (RAMP) survey Changing the way we plan and manage health and development surveys Version September 10th 2012

    2. Presentation overview • Introducing RAMP: an overview • How does RAMP work? • Stakeholder benefits • RAMP survey sampling approach • How much does a RAMP survey cost? • Costs of the RAMP pilot surveys • RAMP malaria survey • Reporting and dissemination of results • RAMP survey toolkit

    3. Introducing RAMP: an overview

    4. Purpose of RAMP • To provide a survey methodology with which Red Cross Red Crescent National Societies, governments, NGOs and other partners can conduct health and development surveys: • at reduced cost • with limited technical assistance • to achieve high standards of survey design and quality • To decrease dramatically the time and effort needed to complete data collection and have results available for decision-making

    5. Background • IFRC and partners (WHO, CDC) developed and refined the RAMP methodology and tools over several years • Based on: • improvements to the EPI survey method (WHO EPI) • improvements based on scientific article published by Donna Brogan, Emory professor of biostatistics, Emory U, Atlanta, USA, specialist in survey methods and analysis, and Emory and CDC colleagues in 1994 • public-domain mobile phone software • Pilot tested in four surveys in Africa 2011-2012 (Kenya, Namibia and Nigeria)

    6. Improvement over old EPI method

    7. Key features of RAMP • Simplicity of sampling design to facilitate survey implementation and reduce field costs • Use of standard survey sampling methods • Use of mobile phones and internet for data collection that enables: • web-based questionnaire design • downloading of questionnaires onto standard mobile phones • data collection using low-cost mobile phones • Real-time, web-based dataset that can be easily accessed and exported for rapid analysis and reporting • Availability of many tools to guide survey planning and implementation

    8. Mobile and internet-based technologies are used to reduce the time taken from data collection to reporting RAMP changes the way that data are collected and enables rapid reporting of results RAMP empowers local ownership of evaluation and research Changing the way we work • The “old” • The “new” • Paper questionnaires filled out in the field • Data entered into a computer at a central location • Data analysis and reporting often takes months to complete • Local capacity is often under-utilized and there is a dependence on external experts

    9. When might a RAMP survey be suitable? • Surveys where rapid results are key • Surveys where cost is a significant issue • Sub-district surveys involving multiple villages that are typically carried out by non-governmental organizations (NGOs) • National, provincial or district-level surveys carried out by Ministry of Health (MoH) or government departments (immunization, maternal and child health, malaria, HIV/AIDS, nutrition, water and sanitation, etc.) to collect intervention coverage data quickly and at low cost 

    10. When might a RAMP survey be suitable? (cont’d) • District-level surveys conducted by the district health management team • Baseline and endline surveys for donor-funded projects/programmes • Repeated surveys to track time trends for key indicators

    11. When might a RAMP survey be suitable? Flexibility

    12. When might a RAMP survey not be suitable: limitations? • Very long questionnaires with a large quantity of skip patterns • Paper method or commercial mobile phone software might work better

    13. How does RAMP work? (Short version)

    14. With RAMP you can transform a standard mobile phone into a cutting-edge evaluation and research tool Conduct surveys and capture data from a standard mobile phone Manage surveys, people and data from your web-based server

    15. How does it work?

    16. Web-based server • Create a free account using Datadyne’s Episurveyor software • Access EpiSurveyor’s web-based server from a web browser anywhere in the world • Design your questionnaire with embedded logic and in multiple languages • Monitor, manage and communicate with your team • Export data and analyse results in real-time www.episurveyor.org/user/index

    17. Why use mobile phones to collect data? • Real-time data entry on mobile phones • Daily upload of data from mobile phone over 2G mobile network to internet database • Real-time data monitoring and data quality checks • Real-time data cleaning • Real-time data analysis • Rapid production of survey results within hours or days of last interview

    18. Mobile phone applicationTransforms complex logic into an effortless step-by-step process • Install Java application onto a standard mobile phone • Log in to EpiSurveyor using user name and password, and download form • Capturedata in the field, even without network coverage • Enter data using the interface of the mobile phone • Automatedsubmission of data when 2G reception is available

    19. How does RAMP work? (Longer version)

    20. RAMP takes advantage of two technologies Low-cost, standard mobile phones Web-based, easily accessible software application (EpiSurveyor) that enables mobile phones to become a data collection platform

    21. How does it work?

    22. Web-based server • Get started and set up your team to work with the EpiSurveyor software • Create a free account using EpiSurveyor • Assign privileges • Access the web-based server from anywhere in the world

    23.  Design your questionnaire • Collaborate with others to design the web-based questionnaire • Easy to master • Supports multiple languages • Embedded logic and skip patterns

    24.  Store questionnaire on phone • Survey questionnaire is downloaded onto the mobile phone • Install Java application onto a standard mobile phone • Log in to EpiSurveyor using a user name and password and download the forms

    25. Collect data in the field • Fieldworker retrieves the questionnaires on the mobile phone • Enters data directly into the mobile phone during interviews

    26.  Data sent to web-based server … • Fieldworker submits data when 2G reception is available • Data are available immediately for processing and analysis • Can transfer data from phone to computer if 2G cell network is not available

    27.  Data monitoring and analysis • Real-time data monitoring • Real-time data cleaning • Real-time analysis • Allows for preliminary analysis even before the data collection is complete

    28.  Produce survey results, rapidly RAMP deceases the time between data collection and the production of the survey results The results can be available within days of the last interviews

    29. So, why use mobile phones to collect data? • Real-time data entry on mobile phones • Daily upload of data from mobile phone over 2G cell network to internet database (eliminates paper-to- electronic database transfer) • Real-time data monitoring and data quality checks • Real-time data cleaning • Real-time data analysis • Rapid production of survey results within hours or days of last interview

    30. Stakeholder benefits

    31. Stakeholders • <Insert a photo collage illustrating the various stakeholders (decision-makers; programme managers; evaluators/researchers; fieldworkers)>

    32. Stakeholder benefits: decision-makers • Scalable solution for studies of varying sizes • Optimizes resource usage and reduces environmental impact • No software licensing or subscriptions • No consultants needed • Maintain control of data; data not analysed by third party • Data rapidly available for dissemination and decision-making

    33. Stakeholder benefits: programme managers • Do not have to reinvent the wheel. The RAMP toolkit offers a variety of knowledge and tools to use and adapt for needs and context of programme managers • Enables monitoring of survey team work rate, productivity and quality

    34. Stakeholder benefits: evaluators and researchers • Incorporate a multitude of question types with custom logic and validation • Manage and upload surveys in multiple languages • Export data for custom analysis using any statistical analysis package

    35. Stakeholder benefits: fieldworkers • Builds local capacity for monitoring and evaluation • Use standard and familiar mobile phones • No more paper tocollect, transport or return • Automated submission of data when network reception is available

    36. RAMP survey sampling approach

    37. RAMP survey sampling approach • Simplicity of sampling design to facilitate survey implementation and reduce field costs • Uses standard survey sampling methodologies • Uses segmentation to break clusters into small pieces • makes fieldwork more manageable • lowers the cost of field surveys • Households are selected by simple random sampling at the last stage • Described in detail in the RAMP toolkit (Volumes 1 and 2)

    38. RAMP: a two-stage cluster survey • First stage: selection of clusters using probability proportionate to estimated size (PPES) • Second stage: selection of households • segmentation of clusters into smaller segments using PPES (if there are too many households for simple random sampling [SRS]) • SRS of a fixed number of households in a selected segment

    39. How is the RAMP method different from MIS/DHS?

    40. Accuracy of the estimates • Sampling bias • Very, very small theoretical bias • related to potential errors in the estimated sizes of clusters (there is an option showing how to eliminate this potential bias) • related to potential errors in the estimated sizes of segments (bias likely to be nearly non-existent) • Potential non-sampling bias generally more important than sampling issues • Examples including non-response, information bias including social desirability, faulty questionnaires, interviewer recording errors, data processing errors and others

    41. The RAMP survey team

    42. RAMP survey team • Programme manager • Survey coordinator • Local data manager/data analyst • Field survey team • field supervisor, interviewers, drivers, local guide • Supervisory support and monitoring team

    43. How much does a RAMP survey cost?

    44. Cost of a RAMP survey (average)

    45. Costs of the RAMP pilot surveys

    46. Cost of the Kenya RAMP survey

    47. Cost of the Namibia RAMP survey