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生態議題論述 2011 April. Innovations in governance. 鄭先祐 (Ayo) 國立臺南大學 生態科學與技術學系 教授. Ayo NUTN Web: Five parts. Innovations in understanding complex systems Innovations in evaluating agricultural development projects

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innovations in governance

生態議題論述 2011 April

Innovations in governance

鄭先祐 (Ayo)


生態科學與技術學系 教授

Ayo NUTN Web:

生態議題論述 2011

five parts
Five parts
  • Innovations in understanding complex systems
  • Innovations in evaluating agricultural development projects
  • Innovations in institutions to support people and the planet
  • Innovations in governance
  • Innovations in policy reform

生態議題論述 2011

food security
Food security(糧食安全)
  • Agriculture is the world’s largest industry, employing more than 1 billion people and generating at least a trillion dollars’ worth of food annually.
  • Yet nearly a billion people remain hungry, even while agriculture’s destructive impacts on climate and biodiversity continue to expand.
  • In 2008 an alarming increase in the number of hungry people triggered numerous high-level conferences on food security.

生態議題論述 2011

the problem
The problem
  • The problem lies in this key fallacy:
    • World hunger continues to be framed as a crisis of supply and demand that should be addressed mainly by improving agricultural output and development.
    • This has resulted in undue emphasis (過度著重) on technological solutions such as genetic engineering and increased use of chemical inputs to boost production, while ignoring issues of governance and accountability related to aid commitments, public spending, public/private partnerships, and policy recommendations of international financial institutions and donor countries.

生態議題論述 2011

overlooks ge
Overlooks GE
  • All approaches to end hunger:
    • Agroecological, chemical-intensive, and genetic engineering
  • But this attempt ignores the fact that most agricultural investment today is going into technical solutions that concentrate power in hands of a few while missing the social and environmental potential of others.
    • More important, it overlooks genetic engineering and carries poorly studied environmental and health risks.

生態議題論述 2011

ge promoters
GE- promoters
  • 私人跨國公司(Monsanto)
  • US Agency for International Development.
    • Agricultural Biotechnology Support Program (ABSP)
  • Philanthropic institutions, including the Rockefeller Foundation and the Gates Foundation.
    • Gates Foundation has spent millions of dollars on the development of GE “nutritious” cassava, bananas, rice, and sorghum.
    • Nearly 80% of Gates Foundation funding in Kenya is directed toward biotechnology, and over $100 million in grants are to organizations connected to Monsanto.

生態議題論述 2011


Gates Foundation awarded a $21.2 million five-year grant in 2009 to the International Potato Center to produce high yielding, stress-tolerant varieties of sweet potato and nearly $1.4 million for three years to Centro International de Agricultura Tropical in 2010 to support efforts aimed at accelerating breeding of cassava for greater productivity, disease resistance and other traits.

  • Rockefeller Foundation and the Syngenta Foundation, it is funding the Insect Resistant Maize for Africa Project at the Kenya Agricultural Research Institute.

生態議題論述 2011

  • 孟山都公司 (Monsanto Company)創始於1901年,目前是一家跨國農業生物技術公司。
    • 生產的旗艦產品 Roundup,是全球知名的草甘膦除草劑。
    • 該公司目前也是轉基因(GE)種子的領先生產商,擁有多種農作物種子,70%–100%的市場佔有率。

生態議題論述 2011

monsanto stock price 2000 2010
Monsanto stock price 2000-2010

生態議題論述 2011

under investigation
Under investigation
  • Monsanto's development and marketing of genetically engineered seed and bovine growth hormone, as well as its aggressive litigation, political lobbying practices, seed commercialization practices and "strong-arming" of the seed industry have made the company controversial around the world and a primary target of the alter-globalization movement and environmental activists.
  • As a result of its business strategies and licensing agreements, Monsanto came under investigation by the U.S. Justice Department in 2009.

生態議題論述 2011

food security1
Food security (個人與組織)
  • Belo Horizonte in Brazil is recognized as a world pioneer in governance for food security.
    • Citizens’ right to food was actively realized through several innovative programs, including a council of citizen, labor, business, and church representatives to advise in the design and implementation of a new food system; participatory budgeting; “Direct from the Country” farmer produce stands in busy downtown areas; markets that provide food at about two thirds of the market price; “People’s Restaurants” that daily serve 12,000 or more people (less than 50cents a meal).

生態議題論述 2011

  • In Indonesia, after achieving self-sufficiency in rice in 1984 the government liberalized its agricultural markets in the 1990s and drastically reduced public support to its farmers.
    • By 1998, the tables had turned and the country was the world’s largest importer of rice and largest recipient of international food aid.
  • The government reversed its liberalization policy in 2002 and curbed imports of rice while encouraging domestic production through higher tariffs.
    • Indonesia was self-sufficient in rice once again in 2004.

生態議題論述 2011

useful tools
Useful tools
  • Push-pull intercropping technology
  • Need an ombudsman (人權運動者), and independent authority with the power to mediate between an institution and the people.
  • Social audits(審計),
    • for ensuring that funders and corporations are supporting truly sustainable agriculture.
    • The goal is careful assessments of the social and environmental effects of economic actions.

生態議題論述 2011

push pull intercropping technology
Push-pull intercropping technology

生態議題論述 2011

a paradigm shift
A paradigm shift
  • World hunger is rooted in poverty and environmental degradation,
  • intervention and a paradigm shift are required that would recognize agriculture as being fundamental to the well-being of all people.

生態議題論述 2011

ayo nutn website http myweb nutn edu tw hycheng


Ayo NUTN website: