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Dhvani

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  1. Dhvani

  2. Dhvani • Echo – a good poem is one that haunts one after reading • Taken from grammar • In grammar – sounds of utterances which reveal the integral linguistic sign (sphota)

  3. Dhvani • A good poem with its sound as well as the literal sense reveals, over & above the literal sense, a charming sense which has great aesthetic value

  4. Dhvani • The term ‘Dhvani’ is referred to – • suggestive poetry where the suggested sense predominates over literal sense • The suggested sense • The function of suggestion

  5. Dhvani • Anandavardhana – Dhvanyaloka(9thcen) “The quality of poetry depends upon the imp. given to the element of suggestion” Suggestion – the soul of poetry

  6. Dhvanyaloka • There are 2 kinds of beautiful ideas in poetry • Vacya (literal) • Pratiyamana (implied)

  7. Vacya/Pratiyamana • Vacya is invariably – • An idea, or • A figure of speech • But suggested sense, pratiyamana may be – • An idea, or • A figure of speech, or • An emotion

  8. Anandhavardhana • Bharata – main objective of dramatic work –to arouse rasa • Anandavardhana extended it to poetry • Dhvani the soul of poetry • Dhvani-stresses on the method of treatment • Rasa – the ultimate effect • Suggestion alone is not enough, the suggested sense must be charming

  9. Rasa Realization • Abhinavagupta (अभिनवगुप्त) (c. 950 – 1020 AD) - one of India's greatest philosophers, mystics and aestheticians He was also considered an important musician, poet, dramatist, theologian, and logician — a polymathic personality who exercised strong influences on Indian culture.

  10. Rasa Realization “when thus the formal or intellectual, imaginative & emotional elements of a poem blend into one predominant sentiment & making a simultaneous appeal, awaken the sthayibhava of the reader or spectator, the relish of rasa is manifested as a unity in the heart, leaving no trace of the constituent elements; & this is why rasa dhvani is called asamlaksyakrama-vyangya or the suggested sense with imperceptible stages"

  11. Criticisms against Dhvani • Nyaya & Mimamsaka schools do not recognize dhvani • Jayaratha’s commentary on Alamkaravasva 12 anti dhvani theories are mentioned • Anandhavardhana himself mentioned many of the views against dhvani in Dhvanyaloka

  12. Criticisms against Dhvani • DhvanivsAnumana • DhvanivsArthapatti • DhvanivsLaksana • DhvanivsAbhidha • DhvanivsTatparyavrtti • DhvanivsVakrokti

  13. Anumana (Inference) • Naiyayika school rejected the suggestive power of dhvani • Mahimabhatta wrote his Vyaktivivekawith the specific purpose of proving that dhvai is included in anumana. But Anandhavardhana anticipated this & justified his stand in 3rd chap. Dhvanyaloka

  14. Anumana (Inference) • Anandhavardhana- • Inference depends on the knowledge of vyapti or the invariable concomitance bet. the middle & major terms of a proposition. Eg. The landscape lay as still as a painted picture. Here, the word still is an instance of inference and not suggestion • Dhvani- the relationship between the expressed sense & the implied sense is something similar bet. light and a pot. As light reveals the pot so the expressed sense reveals the suggested sense

  15. DhvanivsArthapatti • Immediate inference based on universal relation between the absence of the major & the absence of the middle terms • Samsargamaryada • But, arthapatti means to a valid knowledge, demands of suggested sensee accuracy & definiteness, • But- • In dhvani, implied sense is vague • Z

  16. DhvanivsLaksana • Figure of speech • Alamkarikas like Mukulabhattasay at times sentences convey ideas diff. from literal sense, but all such instances come under laksana • Acc. To Anandhavardhanalaksana operates when there is some inconsistencyin the primary sense & cancels it, but in Dhvani primary sense neednt be cancelled • Z

  17. DhvanivsAbhidha • Mimamsakas of Prabhakara school • Anandhavardhana – • Abhidha only primary meaning • Dhvani can be there even without abhidha • Z

  18. DhvanivsTatparyavrtti • Function of the sentence to explain the verbal comprehensions arising from it • Dhanika, Dhanamjaya • Abhinavagupta answers - The power of tatparyavrtti is exhausted by establishing the logical connection of the word meanings & cannot givefurther suggestions

  19. Dhvanivsvakrokti • Kuntakasvakrokti is almost similar to dhvani • Mahimabhatta rejects vakrokti as dhvani theory in disguise • Yet both complimentary • Dhvani from the point of view of the reader • Vakrokti from the point of view of the writer • Dhvani the imaginative content • Vakrokti poets imaginative skill

  20. Classification of Dhvani vivaksitanyayaparavacya (based on abhidha, so called abhidhamula) avivaksitavacya (based on laksana, so called laksanamula)

  21. Dhvani vivaksitanyayaparavacyaavivaksitavacya Atyantatiraskrita-vacya arthantarasamkramita-vacya

  22. Dhvani avivaksitavacya vivaksitanyayaparavacya asamlaksyakrama-vyangya Samlaksyakramavyangya Gunibuta-vyangya

  23. Dhvani II.avivaksitavacya I. vivaksitanyayaparavacya I.3. gunibhuta-vyangya I.2. asamlaksyakrama-vyangya I.1.Samlaksyakrama vyangya (A.)I.1.a.Pada-prakasya I.1.b vacya-prakasya (B.)I.1.a. vastudhvani I.1.b. alamkaradhvani (C.)I.1.a.sabdasaktimula I.1.b. arthasaktimula I.1.c.Ubhayasaktimula

  24. Kaku (intonation) {quality in the mode of expression which brings out the intention of the speaker clearly} • Sakamksakaku (expectant intonation) • Objection (asksephgarbha) • Question (prasnagarbha) • Doubt (vitarkagarbha) • Nirakamksakaku (non expectant intonation) • Vidhirupa (statement) • Uttararupa (answer) • Nirnayarupa(assertion)