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Unit 6: Cell Biology

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jelani-underwood

Unit 6: Cell Biology - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Unit 6: Cell Biology
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  1. Chapter 3.3: Cell Membranes Unit 6: Cell Biology Chapter 3: Cells Section 3: Cell Membrane

  2. Chapter 3: Cells Section 2: Cell Organelles Agenda for Today Do Now! Quick Review on Organelles Protein Production QUIZ! Cell Membrane

  3. Chapter 3: Cells Section 3: Cell Membranes Good Posters and Presentations! The cat loved your posters!

  4. Chapter 3: Cells Section 3: Cell Membrane Do Now! Carolyn and Nouman are giving a presentation about cell organelles. To help the students understand the function of organelles, they describe the cell by using the analogy that the cell is a factory.Using the picture below, which part should Carolyn and Nouman describe as the generator (or powerplant) that powers the factory, and why? Possible answers:•  Organelle 1: this structure controls all activities of the cell. •  Organelle 2: this structure packages and delivers proteins and lipids. •  Organelle 3: this is where cellular respiration occurs. •  Organelle 4: this is where photosynthesis occurs.

  5. Chapter 3: Cells Section 2: Cell Organelles • Cytoskeleton • “cyto” = “cell” • Supports organelles and gives the cell structure. • 3 different components: microtubules, intermediate filaments, & microfilaments. • Found in Animals and Plants • Found only in Eukaryotes

  6. Chapter 3: Cells Section 2: Cell Organelles

  7. Chapter 3: Cells Section 2: Cell Organelles The Cytoskeleton

  8. Chapter 3: Cells Section 2: Cell Organelles • Protein Production • A number of organelles work together to make and deliver proteins. • Nucleus -> Ribosome -> Rough ER -> Golgi Body -> Vesicle -> final destination. • We will use an analogy to describe this process, so be patient.

  9. Chapter 3: Cells Section 2: Cell Organelles • Nucleus • “nucleus” = “kernel” (just like “karyon”) • Stores and protects genetic material (DNA) • Surrounded by a double membrane with many pores, called the nuclear envelope. • Nucleolus is the site of ribosome assembly.

  10. Chapter 3: Cells Section 2: Cell Organelles

  11. Chapter 3: Cells Section 2: Cell Organelles • Ribosome • “ribo” comes from RNA (ribonucleic acid). “soma” = “body” • Has 2 major parts, a large and a small subunit. • In-between the subunits is RNA • Links amino acids together to form proteins.

  12. Chapter 3: Cells Section 2: Cell Organelles

  13. Chapter 3: Cells Section 2: Cell Organelles 3-D View of Ribosome

  14. Chapter 3: Cells Section 2: Cell Organelles • Endoplasmic Reticulum • “endo” = “inside”; “plasma” = “fluid”; “reticulum” = “net” • 2 major sections: Rough and Smooth ER • Rough ER is the site of protein synthesis • Smooth ER is the site of lipid synthesis (fat, hormones, etc.) • ER is an extension of the nuclear envelope

  15. Chapter 3: Cells Section 2: Cell Organelles

  16. Chapter 3: Cells Section 2: Cell Organelles Endoplasmic Reticulum

  17. Chapter 3: Cells Section 2: Cell Organelles • Golgi Apparatus • Named after Camillo Golgi, the Italian scientist who first identified it. • Shaped like a stack of long flattened sacks. • Packages and ships out/in proteins and other macromolecules. • Creates vesicles and lysosomes.

  18. Chapter 3: Cells Section 2: Cell Organelles

  19. Chapter 3: Cells Section 2: Cell Organelles Golgi Apparatus (bloop bloop)

  20. 8 1 7 6 2 5 5 5 5 5 4 3

  21. Chapter 3: Cells Section 2: Cell Organelles • Lysosome • “lyse” = “to break apart”; “soma” = “body” • Digests worn-out organelles and other cell parts. • Breaks down viruses, bacteria, and other foreign bodies. • Full of digestive enzymes and acids.

  22. Chapter 3: Cells Section 2: Cell Organelles

  23. Chapter 3: Cells Section 2: Cell Organelles Lysosome Production

  24. Chapter 3: Cells Section 2: Cell Organelles • Mitochondria • “mito” = “thread”; “chondros” = “granule” • Site of cellular respiration • The “powerhouse of the cell” • Breaks down pyruvate(glucose) and makes ATP (cell energy).

  25. Chapter 3: Cells Section 2: Cell Organelles

  26. Chapter 3: Cells Section 2: Cell Organelles Endoplasmic Reticulum

  27. Chapter 3: Cells Section 2: Cell Organelles • Chloroplast • “chloros” = “green; “plastis” = “one who forms” • Site of photosynthesis. • Converts light energy into chemical energy (glucose).

  28. Chapter 3: Cells Section 2: Cell Organelles

  29. Chapter 3: Cells Section 2: Cell Organelles • Centriole • “kentros” = “center”; “ole” = “little”. • Help organize microtubles. • Serves as an anchor for spindle fibers (during mitosis). • Helps form cilia and flagella. • Always occur in pairs, called a “centrosome”

  30. Chapter 3: Cells Section 2: Cell Organelles

  31. Chapter 3: Cells Section 2: Cell Organelles • Vacuole • “Vacuus” = “empty” ; “-ole” = “small” • Membrane bound • Stores water, food, and other important molecules • Found in Animals and Plants

  32. Chapter 3: Cells Section 2: Cell Organelles • Vacuole • Found both in Animals and Plants • Smaller in Animals, only used for storage. • Larger in plants, also used to maintain turgor pressure and plant structure

  33. Chapter 3: Cells Section 2: Cell Organelles

  34. Chapter 3: Cells Section 2: Cell Organelles • Cell Membrane • “membrane” = “skin” • Found in all cells (eu, pro, animal, plant) • Double layer of phospholipids • Hydrophobic between layers, hydrophilic on outside. • Fluid (everything is in motion) • Semi-permeable • Has many proteins embedded in it.

  35. Chapter 3: Cells Section 2: Cell Organelles

  36. Chapter 3: Cells Section 2: Cell Organelles • Cell Wall • Found only in Plants (Eukaryotes) • Made of cellulose • Provides structure for the plant body. • Cell wall in prokaryotes in not the same thing. (made of different stuff)

  37. Chapter 3: Cells Section 2: Cell Organelles

  38. Chapter 3: Cells Section 2: Cell Organelles Journey in to a Cell