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Judaism

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Judaism. Jewish Diaspora. Origins. Founded in 1600 BCE Canaan- Homeland, Hebrews believed it was promised to them by God (Palestine) Torah- Holy doctrine, first 5 books of the Bible (Old Testament). Abraham. “Father” of the Hebrews Made a covenant (promise) with Yahweh

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origins
Origins
  • Founded in 1600 BCE
  • Canaan- Homeland, Hebrews believed it was promised to them by God (Palestine)
  • Torah- Holy doctrine, first 5 books of the Bible (Old Testament)
abraham
Abraham
  • “Father” of the Hebrews
  • Made a covenant (promise) with Yahweh
  • Abraham promised to be faithful, Yahweh promised to protect his people
journey from ur to egypt
Journey from Ur to Egypt
  • Abraham led his people to Egypt to escape drought and famine
  • They were later forced into slavery
moses
Moses
  • Led Hebrews exit from Egypt, known as the Exodus
  • Spoke with God on Mount Sanai,
  • He returned with the 10 Commandments
beliefs
Beliefs
  • Emphasize moral conduct and the worship of one God (ethical monotheism)
  • Ideas influenced human behavior for Christianity and Islam
  • God will send a savior to earth after three signs have been sent
  • Afterlife often called “world to come”
  • Follow 613 Torah Commandments
slide9
Rabbi is the leader of the synagogue
  • Sabbath is from sundown Friday to sundown on Saturday
  • Star of David arose as symbol in 16th century
holidays
Holidays
  • Rosh Hashanah- Jewish New Year
  • Yom Kippur- day of atonement
  • Passover- exodus of Egypt
  • Hanukkah- festival of lights
founded circa 35 ce
Founded circa 35 CE
  • Based on teachings of Jesus of Nazareth, a Jew.
  • Emphasized parts of Judaism, but also faith in Jesus as the Messiah and son of God
  • God was a trinity: The Father (God), son (Jesus), and the Holy Spirit
  • Most important missionary was Paul of Tarsus
christianity detail
Christianity Detail
  • Added a new book called the New Testament to the Jewish Bible
  • Symbol was the cross on which the Roman government of Palestine crucified Jesus of Nazareth
  • Originally seen as a Jewish cult by Romans
why did christianity spread
Why did Christianity Spread?
  • No infanticide -> Population growth
  • Less patriarchy
  • Many poor were attracted to equality of believers
  • Many educated were attracted to Christian philosophy and writings
  • And…
battle of the milvian bridge
Battle of the Milvian Bridge
  • 312 AD
  • Constantine saw a sign in the sky and heard the words “In this sign, conquer.”
  • Constantine converts to Christianity, encourages patricians to do likewise
hinduism and buddhism

Hinduism and Buddhism

AP World History

Bartlett High School

Mr. Pahl

hinduism
Hinduism
  • Founded circa 2000 BCE
  • No single founder
  • No single sacred text.
  • Grew out of various groups in India:
  • The Aryans added their religious beliefs to those of the Indus Valley.
  • Our of all its complexity, though, there are certain basic beliefs…
hindu beliefs
Hindu Beliefs…
  • God is one, but is known by many names.
  • Everything in the universe is part of the unchanging, all-powerful force called Brahman.
  • Brahman is too complex for most people to understand.
  • They worship gods that give a concrete form to Brahman.
  • Gods are Brahma the Creator; Vishnu the preserver, Shiva, the destroyer
  • All are aspects of Brahman
  • Every person has an essential life, or atman.
more hindu beliefs
More Hindu beliefs
  • But even the atman is just another name for Brahman.
  • The ultimate goal is to attain moksha, union with Brahman.
  • Since this usually takes more than one lifetime, Hindus believe in reincarnation.
  • Reincarnation is the rebirth of the soul in another bodily form.
  • Karma; your good or bad deeds affect one’s future, and the future of those around one, for good or suffering
vedas and upanishads are sacred texts the bhagavad gita spells out many ethical ideas
Vedas and Upanishads are sacred texts. The Bhagavad Gita spells out many ethical ideas.

Even if a very ill-conducted man worships me, not worshipping any one else, he must certainly be deemed to be good, for he has well resolved. He soon becomes devout of heart, and obtains lasting tranquility. (You may) affirm, O son of Kuntî! that my devotee is never ruined. For, O son of Pritha! even those who are of sinful birth, women, Vaisyas; and Sudras likewise, resorting to me, attain the supreme goal.

Bhagavad Gita, Chapter IX

buddha
Buddha
  • Gautama Buddha, from the foothills of the Himalayas, founded a new religion.
  • Gautama born about 566 BCE
  • He saw for the first time in his protected environment, a sick person, an older person, and a dead person.
  • Gautama left a happy married life to discover the realm of life “where there is neither suffering or death.”
buddha1
Buddha…
  • He meditated and fasted. For 48 days he meditated in one place. He believed he understood the cure for suffering and sorrow; he was now Buddha.
  • The Four Noble Truths are the heart of Buddhism:
    • All life is full of suffering, pain and sorrow.
    • The cause of suffering is the desire for things that are really illusions, such as riches, power and long life.
    • The only cure for suffering is to overcome desire.
    • The way to overcome desire is to follow the Eightfold Path
the eightfold path
The Eightfold Path:
  • Right views
  • Right aspirations
  • Right speech
  • Right conduct
  • Right Livelihood
  • Right effort
  • Right mindfulness
  • Right contemplation
buddhism
Buddhism
  • Final goal of Buddhism is nirvana, union with the universe and release from the cycle of rebirth.
  • Buddhism and Hinduism agree on karma, dharma, moksha and reincarnation.
  • They are different in that Buddhism rejects the priests of Hinduism, the formal rituals, and the caste system. Buddha urged people to seek enlightenment through meditation.
buddhism1
Buddhism
  • Buddha preached in northern India and his teachings spread.
  • Buddhas followers gathered his teachings into the Tripitaka.
  • Gradually Buddhism split into two parts, schools:
    • Theravada Buddhism. Closely followed Buddha’s original teachings.
    • Mahayana Buddhism. Made following Buddhism easier for the ordinary people.
  • Buddhism declined in India, being swallowed up by Hinduism which made Buddha another Hindu god.
can you give examples of
Can you give examples of:
  • How are Judaism and Hinduism similar?
  • How are Buddhism and Christianity similar?
  • How are Buddha and Jesus similar?
  • Why didn’t Hinduism and Judaism spread to new converts?
  • Why did Christianity spread west instead of east?
  • How can Hinduism be considered monotheistic and Christianity be considered polytheistic?