academic writing week 3 relative clause n.
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Academic Writing (Week 3): Relative Clause. ※Definition:. R Clause functions as an adjective and modifies a noun or a pronoun. Also called adjective clauses. ※A relative clause begins with a relative pronoun or adverb:. ※Position of Relative Clauses:.

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  • R Clause functions as an

adjective and modifies a

noun or a pronoun.

  • Also called adjective


position of relative clauses
※Position of Relative Clauses:
  • Place a relative clause after its antecedent and as close to it as possible to avoid confusion.
  • Ex. He left the gift in his friend’s car that he had

just bought.

  • (Occasionally, a prepositional phrase comes between the antecedent and the RC)
  • Ex. Try writing a sentence of your own that

contains a relative clause.

punctuation of relative clauses restrictive and nonrestrictive
※Punctuation of Relative Clauses: (restrictive and nonrestrictive)
  • (Whether or not the added clause affects the meaning of the entire sentence.)
  • R: necessary because it identifies its antecedent for the reader.
  • The professor who teaches my biology class won a Nobel Prize two years ago.
  • N-R: not necessary to identify its antecedent; merely offers additional information.
  • Professor Jones, who teaches my biology class, won a Nobel Prize two years ago.
※Relative Pronouns as subjects: Subject Pattern Relative Clauses (which/that/who should not be left out)
test yourselves determine the importance of the given information
※Test Yourselves: (determine the importance of the given information)
  • 1. John Fish explained the complex structure of DNA. He is a research


  • 2. While he lectured, he showed us a slide. The slide diagrammed the

double helix structure of DNA.

  • 3. Words in English are often difficult for foreigners to pronounce. They

begin with the consonants th.

  • 4. Foreigners also have difficulty with English spelling. English spelling is

not always consistent with its pronunciation.

  • 5. Anyone must have a logical mind. He or she wants to be a computer


  • 6. Fans quickly lose interest in a sports team. The team loses game after


test yourselves
※Test Yourselves:
  • 1. Albert Einstein was a high school dropout. The world

recognizes him as a genius.

  • 2. As a young boy, Einstein had trouble in elementary and high

school. He attended these schools in Germany.

  • 3. He did poorly in subjects. He disliked them.
  • 4. The only subjects were mathematics and physics. He loved


  • 5. He developed theories. We use theories to help us understand

the nature of the universe.

  • 6. Einstein is best known for his General Theory of Relativity. He

began to develop this theory while living in Switzerland.

test yourselves1
※Test Yourselves:
  • 1. First National Bank tries to attract female

customers. The bank’s president is a woman.

  • 2. Companies conduct market research to

discover trends among consumers.

Consumers’ tastes change rapidly.

  • 3. A manufacturer can offer lower prices. Its

costs are lower because of mass production.

test yourselves2
※Test Yourselves:
  • Ex. Maya Angelou, whose poetry we have been

reading in our English class, is one of America’s

most famous female poets.

  • 1. William Shakespeare lived and wrote 400 years


High school students struggle to understand his


  • 2. Nike is a sporting goods company. Most people

recognize the company’s “swoosh” symbol.

  • 3. The actress has starred in several films. I can’t

remember her name.

relative pronouns as objects of prepositions
※Relative Pronouns as Objects of Prepositions:
  • (Formal: prepositions come before the relative pronoun; vice versa)
test yourselves3
※Test Yourselves:
  • 1. Finding reasonably priced housing in big cities is a problem. Many young

People are concerned about the problem.

  • 2. Affordable apartments are scarce. Young people would like to live in


  • 3. Of course, many young people share apartments, but they have to

choose roommates carefully. They will share living space and expenses

with these roommates.

  • 4. In many countries, young people continue to live with their parents in

the same house. They grew up in that house.

  • 5. In the United States, young people don’t want to live with their parents.

They typically declare their independence from their parents at age


relative pronouns in phrases of quantity and quality
※Relative Pronouns in Phrases of Quantity and Quality
  • Quantity: some of which, one of whom, all

of whom, each of which, etc.

  • Quality: the best of which, the most

important of whom, the more

economical of which, the loveliest

of which, etc.

(They are always non-restrictive)

test yourselves4
※Test Yourselves:
  • 1. There is a chain of islands in the Caribbean Sea. The most

charming of the islands is Puerto Rico, “The Land of


  • 2. Puerto Rico attracts thousands of visitors. Many of them come for

the sunny weather, the beautiful beaches, and the Spanish


  • 3. Puerto Rico’s economy is growing. The most important sector of

the economy is clothing manufacturing.

  • 4. Puerto Ricans have strong ties to the United States. All of them

are U.S. citizens.

  • 5. Puerto Rico has three political parties. One of them favors Puerto

Rico’s becoming a state.

adverbial relative clauses
※Adverbial Relative Clauses:
  • when & where; replace entire prepositional phrase, such as on Sunday or in the city.
test yourselves5
※Test Yourselves:
  • 1. Germany had been divided into two countries

since 1945. It was defeated in World War II in


  • 2. 1989 was the year. The Berlin Wall was torn

down in that year.

  • 3. In 1990, Germany became one country again.

East and West Germany were united in 1990.

  • 4. There was anxiety in places. People fear

losing their jobs in some places.