The Many Jobs of the Nation's President Chapter 11 Pages 240-271
Qualifications for the Presidency • Legal • Must be 35 years old or older • Must be a natural-born citizen • Must have been a resident of the United States for 14 years
Qualifications for the Presidency (cont.) • Personal Qualifications • Most Presidents have been: • Male • In their 50’s/60’s • Married • Protestant (Christian) • White • Professional Career, 2/3rds from legal career • Your input: Why has this been this way?
Qualifications for the Presidency (cont.) • Political Qualifications • Political background plays a major role: • Successful Political Career • Being well known • Large state politicians are more common • Governors and Senators are more common
Electoral College • Voters do not actually vote for candidates, instead they vote for electors that will vote for that candidate. • Every state has a number of electors that equals the number of Congress members from that state. (Senators + Representatives = Electors) (D.C. gets 3) • There are a total of 538 Electors. • To win a candidate must get 50% + 1, which is 270 electors • If no one gets to 270, then the House of Representatives decides who won.
Weaknesses of the Electoral College • The system has allowed for Presidents to be elected, even though they lost the popular vote of the nation. • If no one wins, then the House decides, which favors the party with the most power in the House. • Forces candidates to focus on the big states to win, directing them to address more urban and suburban issues and less rural issues.
Term of Office • Serves four-year terms • Cannot be elected President more than twice. • Established by the 22nd Amendment in 1951 after Roosevelt was elected 4 times from 1933-1945. • If a Vice-President takes over, they can be elected twice if they served less than 2 years, if serve more than 2 years can only be elected once.
7 Roles of the President • Chief of State • Chief Diplomat • Chief Legislator • Chief Jurist • Chief Politician • Commander-in-Chief • Chief Executive
Chief of State • This aspect of the President is when the President is acting as the symbol of the United States, its power, and its policies. • This role requires the President to be visible and apart of certain events, like celebrations, pardoning a turkey, etc. It also includes visiting foreign countries and hosting foreign guests. • Americans see the President as a symbol of their way of life. • The world sees the United States reflected in the President’s Image. • If the President is aggressive than America is aggressive, if the President if compassionate, then America is compassionate.
Chief Legislator • This role deals with the President’s responsibilities to lead and advise Congress as to the economic, social problems that need to be addressed. • The President uses the State of the Union address, media, national budget, and direct communication to accomplish this. • The President can also call Special Sessions of Congress to deal with specific issues. • The President also Veto’s bills that they do not like (Checks and Balances)….Congress will try to make changes that the President supports in order to avoid a bill being vetoed.
Chief Executive • This role is the President’s job of being the head of the administrative machine of the federal government that carries out (executes) the laws of the country. • There are over 3 million employees under the President .
Chief Executive (cont.) • The President’s Cabinet • The Cabinet is made up of 15 people who are in-charge of 15 departments that deal with each of the different areas the President makes decisions about. • These people are there to advise the President, as well as, carry out the decisions/orders from the President. • The Cabinet is not officially found in the Constitution, but President Washington used Section 2, of Article II to justify its creation. • The President chooses who is in his/her Cabinet, but Congress has to approve the appointment.
Chief Executive (cont.) • Duties of the Cabinet • Manage the affairs of their department • Represent their departments in public and before Congress by giving speeches, writing legislation, and testifying before committees • Advise the President on matters that concern their department
Chief Executive (cont.) • Executive Orders • These are the individual orders from the President that help them work out the details of how to carry out laws. • These are complex and there are over 10,000 in effect at any time. • Executive Powers • These powers come from the Constitution • Patronage power-The power of the President to appoint federal officials. • Dismissal power-The power of the President to dismiss federal officials. • No official reason needed in these cases.
Chief Diplomat • This role centers on the interaction with foreign leaders, governments, and peoples. • Three formal powers: • The initiation of foreign policy • The recognition of new foreign governments • The making of treaties • The President has many people and tools available to help them accomplish this task. • The First Lady and Vice President have been used to help the President in this role.
Chief Diplomat (cont.) • Initiating foreign policy • The President’s personal philosophy will affect foreign policy in negotiations, speeches, and legislation. • Doctrines are used to establish goals and give guidelines to U.S. Policy • Monroe Doctrine of 1823 and the Truman Doctrine of 1947 • The Presidents also travel to other nations to meet with their leaders. • These are called Summit Conferences • This gives the President and other leaders the chance to talk out agreements on different issues like defense, trade, etc.
Chief Diplomat (cont.) • Recognizing Foreign Governments • The President has the power of Diplomatic Recognition, which is the power to accept another government (nation) as legal or not. • The government must be recognized for the U.S. Government to support and work with it. • This is not an issue in peaceful changing of government, but the President has a tough decision when it is a violent changing of government.
Chief Diplomat (cont.) • Making Treaties • The President makes all treaties, not just war but also trade, economic aid, etc. • Once the President has negotiated a treaty, it is then presented to Congress, where Congress will either approve or reject it. • If Congress rejects it, then it does not take affect. • In times of an emergency, the President can issue an executive order in the place of a treaty, this is done if there is not enough time for Congress to approve it. • Does not happen often, but the Lend-Lease Act under Roosevelt in WWII was an executive order.
Chief Politician • This role centers on the fact that the President is the leader of his/her political party. • They are the highest person in the party and when they speak everyone listens. • The President can change party member’s minds by: • Contacting them directly • Use Presidential support/opposition to bills to direct the party. • Withhold money from the budget in areas that matter to the party member • Request “party loyalty” • Go to the public and use them to put pressure on.
Chief Politician (cont.) • Coattail Effect • The people who are in good with the President are going to be viewed in the same light as the President by the public. • Meaning popular Presidents can help get allies elected by their support.
Chief Jurist • This is the role of the President when it comes to our justice system. • This is a very important role, but a very limited role. The President has 3 responsibilities: • Appointing Federal Judges (including the Supreme Court) • Pardoning (freeing) to individuals accused/convicted of criminal activities. • Carry out/enforce court decisions • Even if the President disagrees with the decision, it is their job to make sure that the decision is carried out and enforced across the nation.
Commander – in – Chief • The U.S. Military is made up of the Army, Navy, Air Force, Marines, and the Coast Guard. • There are over 3 million people in the U.S. Military. • The U.S. President is in charge of the Military and makes all final decisions. • Remember there is not any requirement for the President to have a military background, so he is considered a Civilian leader of the military • Civilian means not a part of the military.
Commander – in – Chief • Why a civilian in charge of the military? • Founding fathers felt the British tried to make the Military superior to Civil power and felt that was wrong. • Historically Military leaders have been dictators, have more violence, and result in instability. Military governments do not tend to last long. • It has worked. • Civilian leaders have balanced military concerns/goals with everything else and been very effective. • General MacArthur wanted to bomb Chinese bases during the Korean War and President Truman refused because it would have brought China into the war, starting World War III
Commander – in – Chief • Making the big decisions. • When it comes to strategy and military decisions, the President has final say. • President Truman made the decision to drop the Atomic bomb, no one else. • President Bush made the decision to go to war, Congress only approved of it.
Commander – in – Chief • Think about this……. • Every time the President makes a decision involving the use of military force, they are making a decision that they know will result in DEATH. • Either the enemy will die, Americans will die trying, or both. • Could you make that decision?
Commander – in – Chief • What are some of the decisions the President can make? • Military Strategy during war. • Who, where, when, and how to attack or carry out a war. • How to balance Air, Land, and Sea forces and how much to use of each. • Air Strikes • Missile Strikes • Special Operations • Small task forces to ….. • Capture someone • Isolated attack • Rescue mission • Naval Engagements
Commander – in – Chief • The Role of Congress • The Constitution gives Congress the power to declare war. • War Power Resolution Act of 1973 • The President can only carry out military actions for 90 days without the approval of Congress. • On day 91 the President must stop and withdraw if Congress has not approved. • Use public pressure to guide the decision making of the President
Commander – in - Chief • Additional powers of the President • Control all industrial efforts related to the war • Place ceilings on wages and prices • Regulate or ration food, clothing, and manufactured items. • Suspend some personal freedoms, if such action becomes necessary to safeguard the war effort. • These must end as soon as the situation has passed.
The Vice President • The first 3 Elections the Vice President was the person who finished 2nd in the Presidential election. • This did not work great because you had the winner and the loser of a hard fought campaign now expect to buddies and run the nation. • So it was changed to the modern system, where the Presidential candidate picked their running mate. • Balancing the Ticket • The person chosen to be a Vice President is generally chosen to help strengthen the President’s weaknesses, or balance the ticket. • If the President is from the south, the VP can be from the north, etc.
Duties of the Vice President • Only has 2 Official duties. • Is President of the Senate and votes if there is a tie. • Must be ready to become the President if the current President is unable to carry out duties.
Duties of the Vice President • Even though there are only 2 official responsibilities, the President can use the Vice President for any thing they see fit. • They have been used a lot more over the last 40 years than they were in the past. The old joke was that one became the Vice President to take a political vacation. • Vice Presidents have been used as an extension of the President to focus on certain areas that either the President can not get to or does not care about. • This include the Environment, Education, and even Defense.
25th Amendment • This amendment lays out exactly how the Vice President would take over if there is a situation of Presidential Disability. • The VP takes over when the President notifies the President Pro Tempore and the Speaker of the House of the time, date, and reason. • This happens when the President knows he is going to be unavailable (surgery). • If the President is unable to notify anyone because the situation just happens (sickness, injury), then the VP with a majority vote of the Cabinet will notify Congress the same way. • If the President challenges this, saying he is fine, then Congress will hear the situation and decide who is in power. • 2/3rds Vote of Congress is needed to take away the Presidents power.
Presidential Succession Act of 1947 • Even though we have never had it happen, what do we do if both the President and Vice President die at the same time? • This Act list out the line of succession of who would replace who if something happened. • Vice President, Speaker of the House, President Pro Tempore, Secretary of state, etc. • This line goes a long, long way just to be safe.
Jobs with in the Executive Staff • The White House Staff • These are the people (secretaries, assistants, counselors) who do all of the little things that allow the President to do his job, but he does not have time for. • Scheduling, copying papers, getting the President what he needs. • Office of Management and Budget • This office manages the budget by reviewing it, making sure people are using the money wisely, keeping track of the money, etc.
Jobs with in the Executive Staff • National Security Council • They deal with all of the national security issues that we face by advising the President, contacting the other agencies, the military, etc and making sure they are working together. • Office of Policy Development • They advise the President on domestic issues by gathering information, contacting the proper agencies, meeting with them, etc. • Council of Economic Advisors • These are the people that advise the President on the economy, what’s good, what’s bad, what needs to be done, etc.