mlab 2401 clinical chemistry keri brophy martinez
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MLAB 2401: Clinical Chemistry Keri Brophy-Martinez. Parathyroid gland. Anatomy. The parathyroid glands are four or more small glands located on the posterior surface (back side) of the thyroid gland. Function & Regulation.

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Presentation Transcript
anatomy
Anatomy
  • The parathyroid glands are four or more small glands located on the posterior surface (back side) of the thyroid gland.
function regulation
Function & Regulation
  • Maintain the body’s calcium level for proper functioning of nervous and muscular systems
  • In situations of low blood calcium, the parathyroid senses this and releases PTH hormone that work to increase calcium levels

High blood Ca+ level

Low blood Ca+ level

Breakdown of bone matrix decreases

Breakdown of bone matrix increases

Normal blood Ca+ Level

parathyroid hormone pth
Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
  • Sole hormone secreted by parathyroid, from the chief cells
  • Also known as parathyrin
slide5
PTH
  • Action
    • Raise serum concentration of calcium
    • How?
      • Promotes reabsorption of calcium from bone
      • Increases kidney tubule reabsorption of calcium by a process where phosphate and bicarbonate is excreted
      • Activates vitamin D, assists in absorption in the gut
calcitonin
Calcitonin
  • Produced by the thyroid
  • Action
    • Increase bone formation
    • Inhibit bone breakdown
    • Lowers blood calcium levels
    • Antagonistic to PTH
disorders
Disorders
  • Hyperparathyroidism
    • Causes
      • Benign adenoma
      • Hyperplasia of tissue in response to chronic calcium loss
      • Secretion of PTH from malignant non-endocrine tumor
hyperparathyroidism
Hyperparathyroidism
  • Results
    • Increased PTH
    • Increased urine and serum calcium
    • Decreased serum phosphorous
    • Increased urine phosphorous
    • Kidney problems (stones)
    • Bone problems (demineralization)
hypoparathyroidism
Hypoparathyroidism
  • Causes
    • Primary
      • Idiopathic
    • Secondary
      • Thyroid/ parathyroid surgery
      • Autoimmune diseases
  • Results
    • Decrease PTH
    • Decreased serum calcium
    • Increased serum phosphorous
references
References

Bishop, M., Fody, E., & Schoeff, l. (2010). Clinical Chemistry: Techniques, principles, Correlations. Baltimore: Wolters Kluwer Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

http://www.cedars-sinai.edu/Patients/Programs-and-Services/Head-and-Neck-Cancer-Center/Treatment/Parathyroidectomy.aspx

http://www.teachpe.com/gcse_anatomy/bones.php

Sunheimer, R., & Graves, L. (2010). Clinical Laboratory Chemistry. Upper Saddle River: Pearson .

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