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ACT prep Spring 2012. English 1 Team. Contents. I. Parts of speech II. Fall Review III. Colons IV. Apostrophes V. Subject-verb Agreement. I. Parts of Speech. Parts of speech. What are the parts of speech? Noun —person, place, thing, or idea Pronoun —word used in place of a noun

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act prep spring 2012

ACT prep Spring 2012

English 1 Team

i parts of speech ii fall review iii colons iv apostrophes v subject verb agreement
ContentsI. Parts of speechII. Fall ReviewIII. ColonsIV. ApostrophesV. Subject-verb Agreement
parts of speech
Parts of speech
  • What are the parts of speech?
  • Noun—person, place, thing, or idea
  • Pronoun—word used in place of a noun
  • Verb—express actions, events, or state of being
  • Adjective—word used to describe a noun
  • Adverb—word used to describe an adjective or verb
  • Preposition—links nouns, pronouns, and phrases to other words in a sentence. Usually indicates spatial, temporal or logical relationship .
  • Conjunction—links words, phrases, and clauses
  • Interjection—word added to convey emotion. Not grammatical connected to any other part of the sentence.

For this passage, identify which part of speech each of the italicized words is.

  • (1)Everynight my (2)familyhas what we call a “talk time.” We (3)readily (4)discusswhat we have done (5)duringthe day. Sometimes it (6)ishard for my (7)littlebrother to remember. Then Mom asks (8)himsome questions. “(9)Oh, I remember now,” my brother eventually says.
know how to use words in context
Know how to use words in context
  • Sentence Set 1:
  • Do not run down the stairs, please.
  • The child fell down and scraped her knee.
  • Identify the part of speech of the italicized words.
know how to use words in context1
Know how to use words in context
  • Sentence Set 2:
  • Mr. Gates told her to hand in her test.
  • I will test the water temperature first.
  • Identify the part of speech of the italicized words.
know how to use words in context2
Know how to use words in context
  • Sentence Set 3:
  • These are extremely tasty pears.
  • I prefer these flowers rather than those.
  • Identify the part of speech of the italicized words.
know how to use words in context3
Know how to use words in context
  • Sentence Set 4:
  • The principal will address the students this afternoon.
  • Octavio has a principal part in the play.
  • Identify the part of speech of the italicized words.
fall review
Fall review
  • Identifying subject, verbs, and prepositions
  • Independent vs. Dependent Clauses
  • Simple, compound, & complex sentences
  • Comma use
  • Semicolon use
subject the noun that is doing or being something
Subject – the noun that is DOING or BEING something
  • Find the verb
  • Put the word WHO or WHAT in front of the verb
    • “Who [verb]s?”
    • “What [verb]s?”
  • The answer to that question is the subject.
  • The computers in the Learning Center must be replaced.
dependent v independent clauses
Dependent v. independent clauses
  • Independent clause – a clause that can stand alone as a sentence.
  • Dependent clause – a phrase that cannot stand alone as a sentence (still subject+object).
dependent markers
Dependent markers
  • Both independent & dependent clauses have subject + predicate. HOWEVER, dependent clauses have a dependent marker.
  • as, after, before, until, once, since, while, when, whenever (relating to time)
  • where, wherever (relating to place)
  • although, though, despite (acknowledging contradictions)
  • if, even if, even though, how, unless, whether (acknowledging contingencies)
  • because, in order to, why (examining cause and effect)
  • who, which, that (relative pronouns)
sentence variety
Sentence variety
  • This sentence has five words. Here are five more words. Five-word sentences are fine. But several together become monotonous. Listen to what is happening. The writing is getting boring. The sound of it drones. It’s like a stuck record. The ear demands some variety. Now listen. I vary the sentence length, and I create music. Music. The writing sings. It has a pleasant rhythm, a lilt, a harmony. I use short sentences. And I use sentences of medium length. And sometimes, when I am certain the reader is rested, I will engage him with a sentence of considerable length, a sentence that burns with energy and builds with all the impetus of a crescendo, the roll of the drums, the crash of the cymbals–sounds that say listen to this, it is important.
  • Gary Provost, quoted in Roy Peter Clark’s Writing Tools
sentence types
Sentence types
  • Simple Sentence
  • an independent clause. One thought with a subject + object/predicate.
  • Compound Sentence
  • contains two independent clauses joined by a coordinator
  • Complex Sentence
  • an independent clause joined by one or more dependent clauses.
comma rules luci
Comma rules--luci
  • L—Lists
  • To separate the elements in a series.
  • To separate two or more coordinate adjectives that describe the same noun.
  • U—Unnecessary clauses, phrases, or words
  • Nonrestrictive clauses and phrases and other parenthetical elements are set off with commas
  • C—Combining
  • To separate independent clauses when they are joined by any of the seven coordinating conjunctions (FANBOYS).
  • I—Introductory elements
  • Use commas after introductory a) clauses, b) phrases, or c) words that come before the main clause.
  • Semicolons
  • Independent clause ; independent clause.
  • Colons
  • Independent clause : dependent clause/independent clause.
  • Lets look at the rules of the semi-colon in comic form!
  • The Oatmeal
when do you use a colon
When do you use a colon?

You use a colon to mean ‘note what follows.’

  • In some cases, a colon is used before a list of items, especially after the expressions the following and as follows.
  • Ex: Please submit copies of the following documents: your driver’s license, birth certificate, and Social Security card.
  • If a word is followed by a list of appositives, use a colon to make the sentence clear.
  • Ex: I have the autographs of three stars: Danny Glover, Justin Bieber, and Cher.
  • Make note:
  • DO NOT use a colon before a list that follows a verb or a preposition.
  • Incorrect: I like playing: football, baseball, and soccer.
  • Correct: I like playing the following sports: football, baseball, and soccer.
  • Use a colon before a long, formal statement or a long quotation.
  • Ex: The director made these remarks: “I am proud the finished film and its message that people can overcome serious problems. We don’t have to accept problems and their results; we can call upon our inner strengths, however dormant, to combat them and get us back on the right track.”
  • Use a colon in certain conventional situations:
  • Between the hour and the minute. 10:30
  • Between chapter and verse in referring to passages from the Bible Psalms 3:8
  • After the salutation of a business letter.
  • Dear Mr. Ames:
correct the following paragraph by adding colons
Correct the following paragraph by adding colons
  • Dear Professor Liu
  • Thank you for accepting our invitation to discuss the biblical story of David and Goliath. I understand that the text of your discussion will be I Samuel 17 20-50. The session will be held on Monday, February 10 at 11 25 A.M. Other non-biblical stories that we will be discussing are the following Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, “Wanjiru,” and “Cupid and Psyche.” Dr. Frank Evans has this to say about our conference “It will be a scholarly meeting with much discussion about the literary, religious, and philosophical merits of the works and selections; but it also will be an informal gathering at which interested persons from all backgrounds can exchange knowledge and ideas.”
the apostrophe has 3 uses
The Apostrophe has 3 uses.

To form the possessive of nouns and indefinite pronouns

To mark the omitted material in contractions

To form certain plurals, such as those of letters and abbreviations

use 1 to form the possessive of nouns and indefinite pronouns
Use #1:To form the possessive of nouns and indefinite pronouns
  • Any noun, whether singular or plural, that does not end in s shows ownership by adding an apostrophe and s:
  • a boy’s hat
  • men’s shoes
  • Plural nouns that end in s form possessives by adding an apostrophe after the s:
  • boys’ hats
  • the Smiths’ home
  • the ladies’ dresses
use 1 to form the possessive of nouns and indefinite pronouns1
Use #1:To form the possessive of nouns and indefinite pronouns
  • Singular nouns ending ins or z form the possessive by adding ‘s, unless the pronunciation of the word with the additional s-sound would be awkward
  • The countess’s castle
  • for goodness’ sake
  • Compound words and word groups form the possessive by adding an apostrophe and s to the last word of the group:
  • My sister-in-law’s last visit was in December.
  • Did you get anyone else’s opinion of your paper?
use 1 to form the possessive of nouns and indefinite pronouns2
Use #1:To form the possessive of nouns and indefinite pronouns
  • Special Note: Establishing ownership of two or more items requires special attention.
  • ***For individual ownership, add ‘sat the end of both owners
  • Oliver Stone’sand Alfred Hitchcock’smovies (indicating that each owned certain movies)
  • ***For joint ownership, as ‘s at the end of the second owner’s name.
  • Rogers and Hammerstein’smusicals (indicating that they wrote the musicals as joint projects)
a verb must agree in number with its subject
A Verb must agree in number with its subject.

*A singular subject takes a singular verb, while

a plural subject takes a plural verb.


A bike and a scooter(is, are) my means of getting around until I get a car.

The principal, along with a bunch of teachers, (is, are) getting ready for a snow day.

  • 1. If subjects are joined by and, they are considered plural.
  • Ex. The quarterback and the coach are having a conference.
  • 2. If subjects are joined by orornor, the verb should agree with the closer subject
  • Ex: Either the actors or the director is at fault.
  • Ex: Either the director or the actors are at fault.
  • A verb is not affected by material that comes between the verb and the subject.

The cost of replacing the asbestos shingles with cedar shakes was considerable.





Either one



Apparently, the SAT testing service considers none as a singular word only. However, according to Merriam Webster's Dictionary of English Usage, "Clearly none has been both singular and plural since Old English and still is. The notion that it is singular only is a myth of unknown origin that appears to have arisen in the 19th century. If in context it seems like a singular to you, use a singular verb; if it seems like a plural, use a plural verb. Both are acceptable beyond serious criticism" (p. 664).

Indefinite pronouns - SINGULAR

None?  Singular or Plural?

None of us ( is / are ) going to see Transformers 3.


Three-quarters of the students (is, are) against the detention policy. 

Either the physicians in this hospital or the chief administrator (is, are) going to have to make a decision. 

Either the chief administrator in this hospital or the physicians (is, are) going to have to make a decision.

Kara Cannon, together with her teammates, (present, presents) a formidable opponent on the basketball court.  

Everyone selected to serve on this jury (has, have) to be willing to give up a lot of time.







rules cont

A verb agrees with its subject even when the subject follows the verb.

On the wall hangsa portrait of his father.

***Be especially careful to find the real subject in sentences starting with here or there.

There wasbarely enough timeremaining.

5. Plural nouns of amount, distance, and so on, when they are used as singular units of measurement, take singular verbs.

Ex: A hundred dollarswas once paid for a single tulip bulb.

Ex: Thirty milesseems like a long walk to me.

rules cont1

6. A collective noun is considered singular when the group is regarded as a unit: it is plural when the individuals of the group are referred to.

Ex: The audience is very enthusiastic tonight.

Ex: The audience are returning to their seat.

When a relative pronoun (that, those, which, whose, who, whom, etc.) is the subject of a clause, the antecedent of the pronoun determines which verb you should use.

Jack is one of the boyswhoenjoy fierce competition.

Ready to practice some tough ones?

trouble structures
Trouble structures
  • For each of the following, please identify the subject of the sentence or clause and the correct verb.
  • Left behind in the closet (was, were) only a sweater and three old shirts.
  • The connection between time spent watching television and poor academic performance (is, are) becoming quite clear.
  • The rest of the money in the entertainment fund (has, have) been donated to the Children’s Home Society.
  • A number of people (has, have) come by the office to ask about concert tickets.
trouble structures cont
Trouble structures Cont.
  • We worked very hard on that project, but the results of our work (is, are) still in doubt.
  • Tom Wilson, in addition to three other people, (has, have) verified that a school holiday has been declared.
  • Neither Wayne nor Martha (is, are) prepared for a pop quiz this morning.
  • Alice is one of those people who (enjoy, enjoys) both classical and rock music.
  • The value of the tapes and compact disks lost in the fire (is, are) a subject for debate.
  • In our college library, unrestricted access to books in the stacks (is, are) not permitted.

9. value is

10. access is

  • sweater and three old shirts were
  • connection is
  • rest has
  • number have
  • results are
  • Tom Wilson has
  • Wayne nor Martha is
  • (people) who enjoy
  • A sentence must have _______ and a ______.
  • A clause contains _____ and a __________.
  • Write an independent and dependent clause.
  • Explain the four letters (five rules) of LUCI.
  • What are the coordinating conjunctions?
  • Write a compound and complex sentence about your literature set book.
  • How do you find the subject of the sentence?
  • Kara Cannon, together with her teammates, (present, presents) a formidable opponent on the basketball court.