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Tumor Immunology. evidence for immune reactivity against tumor changes in cellular characteristics due to malignancy tumor and host components which affect tumor progression use of tumor antigens in diagnosis and immunotherapy. Evidence for immunosurveillance.

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Presentation Transcript
tumor immunology
  • evidence for immune reactivity against tumor
  • changes in cellular characteristics due to malignancy
  • tumor and host components which affect tumor progression
  • use of tumor antigens in diagnosis and immunotherapy
evidence for immunosurveillance
Evidence for immunosurveillance

Infiltration of malignant tissue

association between immunodeficiency and cancer

cause of immuno-deficiency


  • primary (inherited) immunodeficiency


lymphoma, cervical cancer, liver cancer, skin cancer, Kaposi’s sarcoma.

  • secondary (acquired) immunodeficiency
  • malaria

Burkitt’s lymphoma

  • autoimmunity


Association between immunodeficiency and cancer
tumors stimulate an immune response
Tumors stimulate an immune response
  • Animals can be immunized against tumors
  • Immunity is transferable from immune to naïve animals
  • Tumor specific antibodies and cell have been detected in humans with some malignancies
neo antigens of immunologic significance on tumor cells
Neo-antigens of immunologic significance on tumor cells
  • Oncofetal/differentiation antigens
    • Alpha-feto-protein (AFP)
    • Cracino embryonic antigen (CEA)
    • CALLA (common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen)
  • Tumor-associated transplantation antigens
    • Tumor specific transplantation antigen
    • Virus associated shared antigens
alpha fetoprotein clinical use
Alpha fetoprotein: clinical use

AFP increases in testicular and liver cancers

  • Aids in diagnosis and staging
  • Patient management
  • Detection of tumors
alpha fetoprotein concentrations
Alpha fetoprotein: concentrations
  • Normal concentration: <20 ng/ml
  • Abnormal concentrations
    • 100-350 possible hepatoma
    • 350-500 probable hepatoma
    • 500-100 likely hepatoma
    • >1000 HEPATOMA
carcinoembryonic antigen clinical use
Carcinoembryonic antigen:clinical use
  • Adjunct in diagnosis
  • Staging and prognosis
  • Monitoring response to therapy
  • Detection of tumor recurrence

Carcinoembryonic antigen:clinical use

CEA as a diagnostic adjunct

  • Symptomatic patient
  • Elevated value 5-10 times the upper limit

Normal value <10ng/ml

immunity against tumor

Immunity against tumor

All components, specific and nonspecific, humoral and cellular affect tumor progression and growth

escape from immunosurveillance
Escape from immunosurveillance

Lack of


escape from immunosurveillance16
Escape from immunosurveillance

Lack of



escape from immunosurveillance18
Escape from immunosurveillance

Tumors secrete



escape from immunosurveillance19
Escape from immunosurveillance

Tumors shed their


use of tumor associated antigens
Use of tumor associated antigens
  • Raise monoclonal antibodies
    • Use antibodies for diagnosis
    • Use antibodies for therapy
  • Stimulate the in vivo specific response
    • Specific active treatment
    • Specific passive treatment
    • Adjuvant therapy to augment specific immunity
immunotherapy of tumors

killed tumor cells, purified or recombinant Ag


non- specific

BCG, Propionibacterium acne, levamisole, etc.


LAK cells, cytokines

antibodies alone or conjugated with other agent, activated T cells


Immunotherapy of tumors

active immunotherapy

passive immunotherapy

non specific immunotherapy
Non-specific immunotherapy

bacterial products

BCG, P. acnes, muramyl dipeptide

activate macrophages and NK cells (via cytokines)

synthetic molecules

pyran, poly I:C

interferon production


IFN-, IFN-, IFN-, IL-2, TNF-

activate macrophages and NK cells

cytokine immunotherapy

remission of hairy cell leukemia, weak effect on carcinomas

increased expression of class-I MHC, possible anti tumor effect

IFN-, -

increased expression of class-I MHC, Tc and NK cell activation


remission of ovarian carcinoma

T cell proliferation and activation, NK cell activation

remission in renal cell carcinoma and melanoma


macrophage and lymphocyte activation

reduction in malignant ascites


Cytokine immunotherapy
genetic approaches to cancer treatment
Genetic approaches to cancer treatment
  • Transfection with genes
    • Cytokines
    • Class I MHC
    • Co-stimulatory molecules