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Should Morocco be independent?. Background. The year is 1905 Britain and France have signed the Entente Cordiale Germany is looking to build up its empire as part of it’s policy of “ Weltpolitik ”

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background
Background
  • The year is 1905
  • Britain and France have signed the Entente Cordiale
  • Germany is looking to build up its empire as part of it’s policy of “Weltpolitik”
  • Morocco is a country in north Africa that Britain and France had fallen out over in the past but the Entente Cordiale means that Britain will no longer challenge France’s power in northern Africa
  • Germany is upset that Britain and France are now friendly and also is jealous of Britain and France’s colonies
  • In 1905 the Kaiser visited Morocco and challenged France’s right to control Morocco
  • The Kaiser called for an international conference to be held
  • This was the first Moroccan crisis…
task 1
Task 1
  • Your group represents one of the countries involved in the Moroccan crisis
  • Using the information on your sheet identify the aims of that country; whether they support Morocco being independent; what actions they take; why they take these actions; who these actions upset, if anyone; and why they would be upset
  • Complete the chart
background pt 2
Background Pt.2
  • In 1906 a conference was held in Algeciras in Southern Spain
  • It was attended by Germany, France, Britain, Austria-Hungary and Morocco
  • This meeting was held to decide what the future for Morocco should be
  • Each of the countries had to try an achieve their aims at the conference
task 2
Task 2
  • You are now representing your country at the meeting
  • You have to try and gain the best possible outcome for your country
  • Make sure you fully understand the aims of the other European countries fully
  • Complete the chart outlining the aims and alliances shown by the different countries
task 3
Task 3
  • Now look at the possible outcomes of the conference
  • As a group you have to decide on the most appropriate outcome
  • Explain why you have chosen that outcome
background pt 3
Background Pt.3
  • The first Moroccan crisis was resolved but in 1911 the people of Morocco rebel against their King (the Sultan)
  • The Sultan asks the French Government for help
  • France sends in the army
  • Germany still wants to expand its empire and is looking for more colonies
  • The Kaiser decides to help the rebels and sends a gunboat, the Panther, to the port of Agadir
  • This was the second Moroccan crisis…
task 4
Task 4
  • Representatives from your country meet once again to discuss the crisis
  • Using the information on your sheet identify the aims of that country; their position on the crisis; what actions they are prepared to take; why they wish to take these actions; who these actions upset, if anyone; and why they would be upset
  • Complete the chart for your country
morocco
Morocco
  • Morocco
the first moroccan crisis of 1905
The First Moroccan Crisis of 1905

BACKGROUND:

  • Background of tension & rivalry (esp. Imperialism - Kaiser Wilhelm wanted 'a place in the sun‘).
  • Morocco was weak; France hoped to conquer it. 
  • In 1903, the French based an army on the Moroccan border. 
  • In Feb. 1905, France demanded control over the Moroccan army and police.   The Sultan refused.
the first moroccan crisis of 19051
The First Moroccan Crisis of 1905

MAIN STORY:

  • In March 1905, Kaiser Wilhelm visited Tangiers in Morocco.
  • He told the French agent (Count Cherisay) that he wanted free trade for Germany in Morocco - then dismissed him before he could reply.
  • He then gave a speech in which he promised to defend Morocco as 'free and independent ‘ and ‘subject to no foreign control'.
the first moroccan crisis of 19052
The First Moroccan Crisis of 1905

END:

  • There was an international crisis - both France and Germany threatened war..
  • The French (scared of another war with Germany) were going to back down, but the British encouraged them to take a firm line..
  • A Conference was held at Algeciras (1906).
  • Britain and Russia supported France (Britain stationed a navy patrol outside Algeciras harbour)
  • Germany had to promise to stay out of Morocco. 
the first moroccan crisis of 19053
The First Moroccan Crisis of 1905

RESULTS:

  • France were ANGRY with Germany.
  • Britain was frightened of Germany’s Empire.
  • At the Algeciras Conference (1906), France, Britain, and Russia forced Germany to promise to stay out of Morocco.   Germany felt humiliated.
  • In 1907, Britain and Russia, alarmed by German ambitions, made an Entente - adds to alliances.
  • Algeciras convinced Germany that the other countries were 'ganging up' on Germany - from this moment, Germany began preparing for war.
the second moroccan crisis 1911
The Second Moroccan Crisis, 1911

BACKGROUND:

  • Background of tension & rivalry (Imperialism - Kaiser Wilhelm wanted 'a place in the sun‘).
  • At Algeciras (1906), Germany promised to keep out of Morocco - the French Foreign Legion went into Morocco.
  • In 1910, France made a huge loan to Morocco, and took control of customs and taxes.
  • In 1910 France sent a gunboat to Agadir in southern Morocco (German newspapers were angry).
the second moroccan crisis 19111
The Second Moroccan Crisis, 1911

MAIN STORY:

  • In March 1911 there was a rebellion in northern Morocco.   The French sent an army to defend (= angers the Germans).
  • In June 1911, the Germans announced that they needed to protect German citizens in southern Morocco (even though there were no German citizens in southern Morocco).
  • In July 1911, Kaiser Wilhelm sent the gunship Panther to Agadir.   It 'rescued' ONE German.
the second moroccan crisis 19112
The Second Moroccan Crisis, 1911

END:

  • There was an international crisis - war-fever in Germany and Britain.
  • Lloyd George attacked Germany and promised support for France ('Mansion House speech').
  • Nov 1911: Treaty of Berlin - Germany was forced to remove the gunship and accept instead a small piece of land in the Congo.   Morocco became a French colony.
  • Morocco became a French colony.
the second moroccan crisis 19113
The Second Moroccan Crisis, 1911

RESULTS:

  • War-fever in Germany and Britain.
  • Nov 1911: Treaty of Berlin - Germany was forced to remove the gunship and accept instead a small piece of land in the Congo.   Morocco became a French colony.
  • German resentment: Wilhelm said: 'these events have shown the German people where its enemy is'.
  • One historian has written: 'the Kaiser was determined not to be the loser in the next crisis'.
the moroccan crises
The Moroccan Crises

Source J – Lloyd George’s speech at the Mansion House, published in The Times on 22nd July 1911. Lloyd George was then Chancellor of the Exchequer

Source K – The historian W.N. Medlicott writing in 1968

“The Second Moroccan Crisis ought to have been called the “Fez” crisis. The word “Agadir” shows how much unfavourable limelight the Germans attracted to themselves.”

“But if a situation were to be forced upon us in which peace could only be preserved by the surrender of the great position Britain has won by centuries of heroism and achievement, by allowing Britain to be treated where her interests were vitally affected as if she were of no account in the Cabinet of nations, then I say emphatically that peace at that price would be a humiliation intolerable for a great country like ours to endure.”

Questions

Read source J. What is Lloys George suggesting in this source?

What effect do you think source J would have on France and Germany?

How was the Entente Cordiale strengthened by the Agadir Crisis?

How was the Triple Alliance changed by the Agadir Crisis?

What is meant in source K by claiming that the crisis “ought to have been called the “Fez” crisis?

Why do you think it was called the Agadir Crisis?