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POSITIVE BEHAVIOUR FOR LEARNING. School-Wide Positive Behaviour for Learning Effective Classroom Management Module 1: Antecedent Strategies. Classroom Management Practices: Mini-Modules.

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    1. POSITIVE BEHAVIOUR FOR LEARNING School-Wide Positive Behaviour for Learning Effective Classroom Management Module 1: Antecedent Strategies

    2. Classroom Management Practices: Mini-Modules • These mini-modules are designed to provide the slides and materials needed to teach staff, students and families about a SW-PB4L topic (and can be broken down into brief sessions or combined into longer sessions). • Notes have been written to assist with the presentation. • More information is available on this content. • Call your Regional Practitioner if you have questions • Good luck! • Delete this slide before beginning your session

    3. Acknowledgements Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP) Centre on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBiS) Professor George Sugai, The Centre for Behavioral Education & Research, University of Connecticut Professor Tim Lewis, Dean for Research & Graduate Studies at The University of Missouri-Columbia Missouri School-Wide Positive Behavior Support, MO SW-PBS (Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education)

    4. SW-PB4L Subsystems School-wide Classroom Family Non-classroom Essential Classroom BehaviourManagement Practices Student

    5. What “kind” of students can display problematic behaviour? All students. Students with/without labels who are in general/ specialeducation can display problematic behaviour. This is not a special education issue. It is an educationissue. We need to learn more about the 5 CRITICAL FEATURES of effective classroom management to be able to help allstudents

    6. Evidence Based Practices in Classroom Management • Maximisestructure and predictability • Establish, teach, review, monitor, evaluate and reinforce a small number of positively stated expectations • Maximise academic engaged time (i.e., actively engage students in observable ways) • Establish a continuum of strategies to acknowledge appropriate behaviour • Establish a continuum of strategies to discourage inappropriate behaviour Simonsen, Fairbanks, Briesch, Myers, & Sugai (2008). Evidence-based practices in classroom management: Considerations for research to practice. Education and Treatment of Children, 31, 351-380.

    7. Classroom Management: Self-Assessment Revised (2008) Simonsen, Fairbanks, Briesch, Myers & Sugai, 2008

    8. What Do We Know? Classroom Management & Students… “Non-compliant behavior in the classroom has been the overall highest ranking reason for office discipline referrals for grades 1-12” (Colvin, 2009, p. 7-8)

    9. What Do We Know? Students who display non-compliant behaviour are at risk for escalating and long-term negative outcomes such as: • peer rejection, off-task behaviour, low academic achievement, • involvement with antisocial peer groups, drop out, and crime, • ineffective relationships, inability finding and keeping employment and serious mental health issues

    10. The Good News! “In the realm of education research effective classroom management is tied to student success with a confidence approaching absolute” (Sprick, Knight, Reinke & McKale, 2006, p. 201) When Teachers know and use positive & preventative management strategies many of the commonly reported minor classroom behaviours can be avoided (Scheuermann & Hall) The same behaviours that reduce classroom disruptions are associated with increased student learning (Brophy & Evertson)

    11. Effective Classroom Management “The goal of effective classroom management is not creating “perfect” children, but providing the perfect environment using research-based strategies that guide students toward increasingly responsible and motivated behaviour.” (Sprick, Knight, Reinke & McKale, 2006, p. 185)

    12. ABC’s of Understanding Behaviour Patterns • A = ? • B = ? • C = ? • What happens beforethe behaviour occurs? What is the trigger? (Aor antecedent) • What is the behaviour (B)? • What happens afterthe behaviour occurs? What is the outCome? (Cor outCome/ Consequence) A B C

    13. Antecedent Strategiesfor Preventing Problem Behaviour Class-wide Practices • Establish clear classroom expectations & rules • Provide predictability in the environment • Use effective instruction and commands • Arrange seating so that it is appropriate to the instructional activity • Use a brisk pace of instruction • Present material that is appropriately matched to student instructional level & prior knowledge

    14. Why Use Antecedent Strategies? • Increases student engagement with learning • Limits time for inappropriate behaviour • Allows for high rates of positive, specific feedback • Improves student perception of and preference for assignments they consider difficult (Heward, 1994; Kern & Clemens, 2007) Antecedent approaches focus on structuring the environment to prevent problems & enhance motivation

    15. Why Use Antecedent Strategies? • Feasible and easy to implement • Effective for students in general or special education • Do not require significant modification to existing instruction • May foster improvements in student–teacher relationships (Jolivette, Wehby, Canale & Massey, 2001; Kern and State, 2009)

    16. Antecedent Strategies • Maximise structure & predictability • Establish, teach, review, monitor, & evaluate positively-stated expectations • Maximise academic engaged time

    17. Maximise Structure • Develop Predictable Routines • Teacher routines • Student routines • Design Environment to . . . (a) elicit appropriate behaviour & (b) minimise crowding and distraction • Arrangefurnitureto allow easy traffic flow • Ensure adequate supervisionof all areas • Designate staff & student areas • Seatingarrangements (groups, carpet, etc.)

    18. Physical Layout

    19. Have you maximised structure in your classroom?

    20. Assess

    21. 2. Establish, Teach, Prompt, Monitor, & Evaluate a small number of positively stated expectations • Establishbehavioural expectations/ rules • Teach rules in context of routines • Prompt students of rule prior to entering natural context • Monitor students’ behaviour in natural context & provide specific feedback • Evaluate effect of instruction - review data, make decisions, & follow up

    22. Establish Behavioural Expectations • A small number (i.e., 3-5) of positively stated rules. Tell students what we want them to do, rather than telling them what we do not want them to do • Publicly post the rules/ expectations • Should match School-Wide expectations • Construct rules/ expectations based on need in the classroom

    23. Expectations within Routines Matrix

    24. Classroom Routines

    25. Teach Rules in the Context of Routines • Teach expectations directly • Define rule in operational terms—tell students what the expectation/ rule looks like within routine • Provide students with examples & non-examples of rule-following within routine • Actively involve students in lesson (game, role-play, etc.) to check for their understanding • Provide opportunities to practice rule following behaviour in the natural setting

    26. Prompt and Pre-Correct • Prompt or remind students of the expectations • Provide visual prompts (e.g., posters, illustrations) • Use pre-corrections “verbal reminders, behavioral rehearsals, or demonstrations of rule-following or socially appropriate behaviors that are presented in or before settings where problem behavior is likely” (Colvin, Sugai, Good, Lee, 1997)

    27. Monitor & Evaluate Student Behaviour • Active Supervision • Move • Scan • Interact Reinforce Correct • Collect data (and use to make decisions)

    28. Assess

    29. 3. MaximiseAcademic Engaged Time • Actively engage students in observable ways • Activity Sequencing • Offering Choice • Opportunities to Respond

    30. Instructional Classroom Management • Among the best behaviour management tools we have in the classroom are providing: • Effective Instruction delivered with fidelity • High rates of student participation • Using research-based curriculum • Tasks that promote high rates of accurate responses • 90% success rate or better • The most frequent re inforcers in the classroom should be academic success and teacher feedback

    31. Pacing • Sequence activities so preferred activities • follow more demanding activities • Student choice • Opportunities for student responses • Acquisition vs Practice • Student feedback from teacher Instruction Influences Behaviour

    32. Antecedent Strategies for Preventing Problem Behaviour 1. Activity Sequencing • Intermingle easy with more difficult • Simple requests prior to more challenging 2. Offering Choice • Type, order, materials, who, place, use of time 3. Opportunities to Respond • Track students called on • Guided notes • Response cards . . .

    33. 1. Activity Sequencing Task Interspersonal Behavioural Momentum

    34. What is Activity Sequencing? Thinking about and altering the manner in which instructional tasks, activities or requests are ordered in such a way that promotes learning and encourages appropriate behaviour. (Kern & Clemens, 2007)

    35. Why Consider Activity Sequence? • Increases task performance • Decreases disruptive behaviour • Improves student perception of & preference for assignments they consider difficult (Kern & Clemens, 2007)

    36. Why Consider Activity Sequence? • For some students presenting difficult tasks back-to-back often sets the occasion for frustration, failure and problem behaviour. • Varying the sequence of tasks may not be necessary for average students, but can be very important for students who are at-risk for learning or behaviour concerns (Darch & Kame’enui, 2004)

    37. Strategies for Effective Activity Sequencing • Intermingle easy/ brief problems among longer or more difficult tasks (task interspersal) (Kern & Clemens, 2007)

    38. Strategies for Effective Activity Sequencing • Deliver 3 to 4 simple requests prior to a more difficult task (behavioural momentum) (Kern & Clemens, 2007; Colvin, 2009) The theory behind the strategy is once a student is cooperating and engaged in one task (the simple requests), there is more chance of the student cooperating and engaging in the task that immediately follows (the more difficult activity) (Colvin, p.46, 2009)

    39. Activity Sequencing: Examples • Read examples 1 & 2 • Next, with your partner identify the activity sequencing strategy used … • task interspersal or • behavioural momentum

    40. Classroom Application of Activity Sequencing • In spelling or vocabulary lists include 3-5 simple, fun words such as student names, sports teams or holiday related terms, etc. • During a writing activity ask students to draw a simple stick figure at the end of each sentence or paragraph • Let’s think of another example . . (NZ input)

    41. Using Sequence in Your Classroom

    42. 2. Offering Choice Type, Order, Materials, Whom, Place &Time

    43. Why Provide Choice? “Providing opportunities for students to make choices has been demonstrated to be an effective intervention in preventing problem behaviour and increasing engagement” (Kern and Clemens, 2007, p. 70)

    44. Why Provide Choice? “Providing students with the opportunity to make choices may not sound like an instructional practice. However, research indicates offering choices, especially during academic tasks, not only increases student engagement and reduces disruptive behavior, but can also improve response accuracy.” (Scheuermann & Hall, 2008, p. 294)

    45. Why Provide Choice? • Feasible & easy to implement • Effective • Teach learners to become self-determined • Enables them to better control their environment • Allows opportunity for more frequent positive attention and feedback from teachers • May foster improvements in student-teacher relationships (Jolivette, Wehby, Canale & Massey, 2001; Kern and Clemens, 2007; Kern and State, 2009; Morgan, 2006)

    46. Strategies for Offering Choice Examples of Class-wide choice: • Type of task or activity • Order for completing tasks • Kinds of materials that will be used • Whom to work with • Place to work • Choice of how to use time • The content you teach is NOT negotiable but the type • of assignment or ways of completing it can be • negotiated & is likely to enhance student participation • Allowing students choices does NOT change the • amount of work students are expected to complete • and does NOT change the essential components of • the task (Scheuermann & Hall, 2008)

    47. Offering Choice: Example • With a partner read the example • Identify & keep a tally of the types of choices this teacher offered • After a few minutes be prepared to share your responses

    48. Steps for Using Choice in the Classroom • Create a menu of choices you would be willing to provide to students • Look through your menu before planning each lesson • Decide what types of choice are appropriate for the lesson & where they fit best in the lesson • Provide choices as planned while teaching the lesson • Solicit student feedback and input (Kern and State, 2009, p. 5)