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CONTRACEPTION. Senior Health. How many teens become pregnant each year (U.S.)?. About 750,000 Majority are unplanned Factors that lead to this… L ack of correct information Belief of the incorrect information Alcohol & Drugs Peer pressure Portrayals of risk-free sex in the media. Facts.

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contraception

CONTRACEPTION

Senior Health

how many teens become pregnant each year u s
How many teens become pregnant each year (U.S.)?
  • About 750,000
  • Majority are unplanned
  • Factors that lead to this…
    • Lack of correct information
    • Belief of the incorrect information
    • Alcohol & Drugs
    • Peer pressure
    • Portrayals of risk-free sex in the media
facts
Facts
  • Females can ovulate before their first menstrual period, so a teen can become pregnant before menstruation even starts.
  • Sperm normally live for 12 to 48 hours inside the female reproductive tract, can live as long as 6 days.
  • Fertilization is possible even if sexual intercourse occurs during the female’s menstrual period.
  • Only takes one sperm and one ovum for pregnancy to occur.
  • Sperm cannot be urinated out of the vagina- urine leaves the body through the urethra.
forms of contraception
Forms of Contraception
  • 4 Forms of Contraception
    • Behavioral
    • Barrier
    • Hormonal
    • Surgical
behavioral methods
Behavioral Methods
  • Abstinence
  • Withdrawal
  • Fertility Awareness
abstinence
ABSTINENCE
  • Form of Contraception:
    • Behavioral
  • Effectiveness:
    • 100%
  • What is it?
    • Choosing not to engage in sexual intercourse or sex “play”
  • Advantages:
    • Only 100% preventative measure against PREGNANCY and STDs
    • Cost- free
withdrawal
WITHDRAWAL
  • Form of Contraception:
    • Behavioral
  • Effectiveness:
    • 81%
  • What is it?
    • Withdrawing the penis before ejaculation occurs
  • Disadvantages:
    • Pre-ejaculate material contains sperm
    • No protection against STDs
    • Cost- free
fertility awareness calendar method
Fertility Awareness – “Calendar Method”
  • Form:
    • Behavioral
  • Effectiveness:
    • 75%
  • What is it?
    • Selecting specific days to have sexual intercourse based on the woman’s menstrual cycle/day of ovulation.
  • Disadvantages:
    • Menstrual cycles may vary
    • Not a spontaneous form of contraception
    • Cost per calendar kit- $12
barrier methods
Barrier Methods
  • Devices that prevent fertilization by keeping sperm from reaching the egg.
  • Blocked or spoiled before uterus
  • Male Condom
  • Female Condom
  • Spermicidal Foam/Jelly
  • Sponge
  • Diaphragm & Cervical Cap
male condom
MALE CONDOM
  • Form:
    • Barrier, OTC (Over The Counter)
  • Effectiveness:
    • 86-98%
  • What is it?
    • Rubber/latex sheath placed over the penis to collect pre-ejaculate material and semen upon ejaculation. (Some with spermicide)
  • Advantages:
    • Provides protection against STDs
  • Disadvantages:
    • Incorrect use
    • Latex allergies
    • Cost- 1.25
female condom
FEMALE CONDOM
  • Form:
    • Barrier
  • Effectiveness:
    • 79%
  • What is it?
    • Fits deep into the vagina, ring holds it in place, blocks sperm from entering the vagina.
  • Advantages:
    • Provide protection against STDs
  • Disadvantages:
    • Difficult to use
    • Hard to keep in place
    • Known to be noisy
    • Cost- $4 each
spermicide foam j elly
Spermicide (Foam/Jelly)
  • Form:
    • Barrier
  • Effectiveness:
    • 74%
  • What is it?
    • Injected into the vagina before sexual intercourse to immobilize sperm and block them from entering the uterus.
    • Before 5-90 min, after 6-8 hours
  • Disadvantages:
    • No protection against STDs
    • Messy
    • Have to use each intercourse act
    • Should be used with other forms of contraception (condom, diaphragm)
    • Cost- per tube $8
sponge
SPONGE
  • Form:
    • Barrier
  • Effectiveness
    • 80%
  • What is it?
    • Placed deep into the vagina to block the cervical opening; also contains spermicide.
    • Remove after 6 hours
  • Disadvantage:
    • hard to insert
    • No protection against STD’s….
    • Cost- $15 per 3 pack
diaphragm cervical cap
DIAPHRAGM & CERVICAL CAP
  • Form:
    • Barrier (Prescription)
  • Effective
    • 80%
  • What is it?
    • Dome-shaped cup with flexible rim; placed deep into vagina to cover cervix
    • Fitted by a doctor
  • Advantages:
    • Can be implanted for up to 24 hours/48 hours
  • Disadvantages
    • Difficult to insert
    • Moves around during sexual intercourse
    • No protection against STD’s….
    • Cost-$ 15-75
hormonal methods function by suppressing ovulation and preventing fertilization
Hormonal Methods-function by suppressing ovulation and preventing fertilization.
  • Birth Control Pill
  • The Patch
  • Vaginal Ring
  • The Shot
  • Emergency Contraception
  • IUD
  • Implant
birth control pill
BIRTH CONTROL PILL
  • Form:
    • Hormonal
  • Effectiveness:
    • 95-99%
  • What is it?
    • Prevents ovulation
    • Thicken cervical mucous to prevent sperm from passing through to uterus
    • Thins uterine wall to not allow implantation to occur.
  • Advantages:
    • Period regularity
    • Decreased cramps
  • Disadvantages:
    • No protection against STDs
    • Must take at the same time every day.
    • Possible weight gain.
    • Cost- $15-50 per month
the patch
THE PATCH
  • Form:
    • Hormonal
  • Effectiveness:
    • 92-99%
  • What is it?
      • Each patch in place for one week; one week without patch – menstruation.
    • Release hormones through the skin.
      • Prevents ovulation
      • Thicken cervical mucous to prevent sperm from passing through to uterus
      • Thins uterine wall to not allow implantation to occur.
  • Advantages:
    • Visual reminder that you are using birth control
    • No need for daily maintenance, good for a week
  • Disadvantages:
    • No protection from STDs
    • Similar to THE PILL
    • Risk for blood clots
vaginal ring nuva ring
VAGINAL RING/NUVA-RING
  • Form:
    • Hormonal
  • Effectiveness:
    • 95%-99%
  • What is it?
    • Small, flexible ring that releases hormones
    • In vagina for 3 weeks; removed for 1 week – menstruation
      • Prevents ovulation
      • Thicken cervical mucous to prevent sperm from passing through to uterus
      • Thins uterine wall to not allow implantation to occur.
  • Advantages:
    • Menstrual Regularity
  • Disadvantages:
    • No protection against STDs
    • Irregular bleeding
the shot depo provera
THE SHOT/DEPO-PROVERA
  • Form:
    • Hormonal
  • Effective:
    • 99%
  • What is it?
    • Shot will last for 3 months
      • Prevents ovulation
      • Thicken cervical mucous to prevent sperm from passing through to uterus
      • Thins uterine wall to not allow implantation to occur.
  • Advantages:
    • No maintenance
    • Decreased cramping
  • Disadvantages:
    • Does not protect against STDs
    • Takes 12-18 weeks for the shot to “wear off”
    • Cost- $35-75 per injection
emergency contraception the morning after pill plan b
EMERGENCY CONTRACEPTION – “THE MORNING AFTER PILL”/PLAN B
  • Form:
    • Hormonal
  • Effectiveness:
    • 80-86%
  • What is it?
    • Must be taken within 72 hours of unprotected sexual intercourse
    • Large dose of progestin and estrogen
    • Over the counter for 17 years old +
    • Prevent ovulation if it has not already occurred
    • Thicken mucous in cervix and thins the wall of the uterus to prevent implantation if an egg has already been fertilized.
  • Disadvantages:
    • Does not protect against STDs
intra unterine device iud
INTRA-UNTERINE DEVICE (IUD)
  • Form:
    • Barrier/Device/Hormonal
  • Effectiveness:
    • 98%-99%
  • What is it?
    • Affects the mobility of the sperm
    • Thickens cervical mucous; thins the lining of the uterus.
    • Can be in place for 3-7 years.
  • Disadvantages:
    • cramping, bleeding between menstrual cycles, No protection against STD’s.
    • Cost- $500-$1000
birth control implant
BIRTH CONTROL IMPLANT
  • Form:
    • Hormonal
  • Effectiveness:
    • 99%
  • What is it?
    • Hormonal regulation stick implanted into the upper arm that helps to prevent pregnancy
    • Thickens the cervical mucus/prevents sperm from fertilizing the egg
  • Disadvantages:
    • No protection against STDs
  • Advantages:
    • Lasts for 3 years/5 years
    • After removal pregnancy can be quick
surgical methods
Surgical Methods
  • Tubal Sterilization
  • Vasectomy
female sterilization tubal ligation
FEMALE STERILIZATION – Tubal Ligation
  • Form:
    • Surgical Procedure
  • Effectiveness:
    • 99.5%
  • What is it?
    • Tying off of the fallopian tubes so the sperm can not reach the egg
  • Disadvantages:
    • Does not prevent STDs
    • PERMANENT!!*
  • Advantages:
    • PERMANENT!
    • Does not decrease sexual desire
  • Cost- 1500-6000
vasectomy
VASECTOMY
  • Form:
    • Surgical Procedure (“lunch time” surgery)
  • Effectiveness:
    • 99%
  • What is it?
    • Blocks the vas deferens to keep the sperm out of the semen
  • Disadvantage:
    • PERMANENT*
  • Advantages:
    • Permanent
    • Does not decrease sexual desire
    • Cost- $350-1000