chromosomal basis of inheritance l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 35

Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 257 Views
  • Uploaded on

Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance. Errors and Exceptions in Chromosomal Inheritance. 1. Alterations of chromosome number or structure cause some genetic disorders 2. The phenotypic effects of some mammalian genes depend on whether they are inherited from the mother or the father (imprinting)

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance' - jeanette


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
errors and exceptions in chromosomal inheritance
Errors and Exceptions in Chromosomal Inheritance

1. Alterations of chromosome number or structure cause some genetic disorders

2. The phenotypic effects of some mammalian genes depend on whether they are inherited from the mother or the father (imprinting)

3. Extranuclear genes exhibit a non-Mendelian pattern of inheritance

more errors and exceptions in chromosomal inheritance
More Errors and Exceptions in Chromosomal Inheritance
  • Sex-linked traits are not the only notable deviation from the inheritance patterns observed by Mendel.
  • Gene mutations are not the only kind of changes to the genome that can affect phenotype.
  • Major chromosomal aberrations and their consequences produce exceptions to standard chromosome theory.
nondisjunction
Nondisjunction
  • Nondisjunction occurs when problems with the meiotic spindle cause errors in daughter cells.
    • This may occur if tetrad chromosomes do not separate properly during meiosis I.
    • Alternatively, sister chromatids may fail to separate during meiosis II.
  • As a consequence of nondisjunction, some gametes receive two of the same type of chromosome and another gamete receives no copy.
  • Offspring resulting from fertilization of a normal gamete with one after nondisjunction will have an abnormal chromosome number or aneuploidy.
    • Trisomic cells have three copies of a particular chromosome type and have 2n + 1 total chromosomes.
    • Monosomic cells have only one copy of a particular chromosome type and have 2n - 1 chromosomes.
breakage of a chromosome
Breakage of a Chromosome
  • Breakage of a chromosome can lead to four types of changes in chromosome structure.
  • A deletion occurs when a chromosome fragment is lost during cell division.
    • This chromosome will be missing certain genes.
  • A duplication occurs when a fragment becomes attached as an extra segment to a sister chromatid.
  • An inversion occurs when a chromosomal fragment reattaches to the original chromosome but in the reverse orientation.
  • In translocation, a chromosomal fragment joins a nonhomologous chromosome.
    • Some translocations are reciprocal, others are not.
slide6

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

A

B

C

E

F

G

H

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

A

B

C

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

A

D

C

B

E

F

G

H

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

M

N

O

P

Q

R

A

B

P

Q

R

M

N

O

C

D

E

F

H

(a) Deletion

A deletion removes a chromosomal segment.

(b) Duplication

A duplication repeats a segment.

(c) Inversion

An inversion reverses a segment within a chromosome.

(d) Translocation

H

A translocation moves a segment from onechromosome to a nonhomologous chromosome.

G

slide7

A

C

D

E

F

G

H

A

B

C

E

F

G

H

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

A

B

C

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

(a) Deletion

B

A deletion removes a chromosomal segment.

(b) Duplication

A duplication repeats a segment.

slide8

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

A

D

C

B

E

F

G

H

D

M

N

O

P

Q

R

A

B

C

E

F

G

H

A

B

P

Q

R

M

N

O

C

G

D

E

F

H

(c) Inversion

An inversion reverses a segment within a chromosome.

(d) Translocation

A translocation moves a segment from onechromosome to a nonhomologous chromosome.

breakage of a chromosome9
Breakage of a Chromosome
  • Deletions and duplications are common in meiosis.
    • Homologous chromatids may break and rejoin at incorrect places, such that one chromatid will lose more genes than it receives.
  • A diploid embryo that is homozygous for a large deletion or male with a large deletion to its single X chromosome is usually missing many essential genes and this leads to a lethal outcome.
    • Duplications and translocations are typically harmful.
  • Reciprocal translocation or inversion can alter phenotype because a gene’s expression is influenced by its location.
slide10

One syndrome, cri du chat, results from a specific deletion in chromosome 5. These individuals are mentally retarded, have a small head with unusual facial features, and a cry like the mewing of a distressed cat.

slide11
Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML) occurs when a fragment of chromosome 22 switches places with a small fragment of chromosome 9
cml and philadephia chromosome

Normal chromosome 9

CML and Philadephia Chromosome

Normal chromosome 22

Reciprocal translocation

Translocated chromosome 9

Translocated chromosome 22(Philadelphia chromosome)

genetic imprinting
Genetic Imprinting
  • For most genes it is a reasonable assumption that a specific allele will have the same effect regardless of whether it was inherited from the mother or father.
  • However, for some traits in mammals, it does depend on which parent passed along the alleles for those traits.
    • The genes involved are not sex linked and may or may not lie on the X chromosome.
genomic imprinting
Genomic Imprinting
  • In this process, a gene on one homologous chromosome is silenced, while its allele on the homologous chromosome is expressed.
  • The imprinting status of a given gene depends on whether the gene resides in a female or a male.
    • The same alleles may have different effects on offspring, depending on whether they arrive in the zygote via the ovum or via the sperm.
  • In the new generation, both maternal and paternal imprints are apparently “erased” in gamete-producing cells.
  • Then, all chromosomes are reimprinted according to the sex of the individual in which they reside.
slide16

Normal Igf2 alleleis expressed.

Paternalchromosome

Maternalchromosome

Normal-sized mouse(wild type)

Normal Igf2 alleleis not expressed.

(a) Homozygote

Mutant Igf2 alleleinherited from mother

Mutant Igf2 alleleinherited from father

Dwarf mouse (mutant)

Normal-sized mouse (wild type)

Normal Igf2 alleleis expressed.

Mutant Igf2 alleleis expressed.

Mutant Igf2 alleleis not expressed.

Normal Igf2 alleleis not expressed.

(b) Heterozygotes

slide17

Normal Igf2 alleleis expressed.

Paternalchromosome

Maternalchromosome

Normal-sized mouse(wild type)

Normal Igf2 alleleis not expressed.

(a) Homozygote

slide18

Mutant Igf2 alleleinherited from father

Mutant Igf2 alleleinherited from mother

Dwarf mouse (mutant)

Normal-sized mouse (wild type)

Normal Igf2 alleleis expressed.

Mutant Igf2 alleleis expressed.

Mutant Igf2 alleleis not expressed.

Normal Igf2 alleleis not expressed.

(b) Heterozygotes

slide19
Two human disorders with different phenotypic effects, Prader-Willi syndrome and Angelman syndrome, are due to the same cause, a deletion of a specific segment of chromosome 15.
    • Prader-Willi syndrome is characterized by mental retardation, obesity, short stature, and unusually small hands and feet.
    • These individuals inherit the abnormal chromosome from their father.
    • Individuals with Angelman syndrome exhibit spontaneous laughter, jerky movements, and other motor and mental symptoms.
    • This is inherited from the mother.
fragile x
Fragile X
  • Fragile X syndrome, which leads to various degrees of mental retardation, also appears to be subject to genomic imprinting.
    • This disorder is named for an abnormal X chromosome in which the tip hangs on by a thin thread of DNA.
    • This disorder affects one in every 1,500 males and one in every 2,500 females.
  • Inheritance of fragile X is complex, but the syndrome is more common when the abnormal chromosome is inherited from the mother.
extranuclear dna
Extranuclear DNA
  • Not all of a eukaryote cell’s genes are located in the nucleus.
  • Extranuclear genes are found on small circles of DNA in mitochondria and chloroplasts.
  • These organelles reproduce themselves.
  • Their cytoplasmic genes do not display Mendelian inheritance.
    • They are not distributed equally to offspring during meiosis.
slide25

Cytoplasmic inheritance in tomato leaves –

Variegated leaves result from genes in plastids – from maternal plant

slide27

This diagram illustrates how one line of mitochondrial

DNA came to be carried by all living humans, passed

down to us from the “Mitochondrial Eve”.

several rare human disorders are produced by mutations to mitochondrial dna
Several rare human disorders are produced by mutations to mitochondrial DNA
  • These primarily impact ATP supply by producing defects in the electron transport chain or ATP synthase.
  • Tissues that require high energy supplies (for example, the nervous system and muscles) may suffer energy deprivation from these defects.
  • Mitochondrial myopathy causes weakness, intolerance of exercise and muscle deterioration
  • Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy can produce sudden blindness in people as young as 20s or 30s. The four mutations found thus far to cause the disorder affect oxidatitive phosphorylation during cellular respiration
  • Other mitochondrial mutations may contribute to diabetes, heart disease, and other diseases of aging such as Alzheimers.
  • During our lives, new mutations may gradually accumulate in our mitochondrial DNA and they may play a role in normal aging
  • Many of these new mutations show up in hypervariable region of mtDNA
multiple alleles

(a) The three alleles for the ABO blood groups and their carbohydrates

Allele

IA

IB

i

none

Multiple Alleles

Carbohydrate

B

A

(b) Blood group genotypes and phenotypes

Genotype

ii

IAIA or IAi

IBIB or IBi

IAIB

Red blood cellappearance

Phenotype(blood group)

A

AB

O

B