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Earthquake discoveries near and far

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Pgs. 135 - 137. Earthquake discoveries near and far. Discoveries of Earth’s Interior. Seismologists learn about the Earth’s interior by observing how seismic waves travel through the Earth.

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discoveries of earth s interior
Discoveries of Earth’s Interior
  • Seismologists learn about the Earth’s interior by observing how seismic waves travel through the Earth.
  • Seismic waves will bend as they travel through different layers of rock, much like a straw in a glass of water.
  • Where waves bend in different directions, let seismologists know where layers of rock change.
  • The Moho is a place within the Earth where the speed of seismic waves increases sharply.
  • This is the boundary between the crust and mantle.
  • The shadow zone is an area on the Earth’s surface where no direct seismic waves can be detected.
  • This is evidence of a liquid core.
  • The solid inner core was discovered in 1936 by studying seismic waves, disproving the idea of a liquid core.
quakes and shakes on other cosmic bodies
Quakes and Shakes on other Cosmic Bodies
  • Seismologist apply what they have learned about Earth to planets, moons, and stars.
  • They learn about their interiors by how waves move through them .
  • Some of the discoveries were found on the moon, Mars and the Sun.
the moon
The Moon
  • When man landed on the moon for the first time, they left a seismograph.
  • When they returned they purposely crashed their vehicle into the moons surface to create artificial seismic waves.
  • They found that the seismograms lasted over 90 minutes, much longer than any Earthquake.
  • The length suggests a different compositionthan on Earth.
  • In 1976, scientists sent a space probe to Mars with a seismograph on it.
  • When it landed, we found that Mars was very windy.
  • The seismograph was detecting the wind because it was that intense.
  • They have recorded one Marsquake though.
  • It shook the seismograph harder than any wind recorded.
the sun
The Sun
  • Scientists have studied seismic waves on the sun by using a satellite called SOHO.
  • Solar flares, powerful magnetic disturbances in the sun, produce seismic waves.
  • The solar flares can result in sunquakes.
  • Sunquakes can release about 1 million times the energy of a strong earthquake.