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COMP6005 An Introduction to Computing
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  1. COMP6005 An Introduction to Computing Session One: An Introduction to Computing History of Computers

  2. History of Computers • First mechanical calculators • 1623 – William Schickard built first mechanical calculator • 1642 – the Pascaline by Blaise Pascal • 1671 – Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz COMP6005 An Introduction to Computing - Session One: History of Computers

  3. History of Computers • 1801: Punch card technology • Joseph-Marie Jacquard developed loom in which pattern woven controlled by punch cards • 1833: Charles Babbage began designing an analytical engine based on punch cards for programming • 1890 – US Census Board used punch cards and sorting machines designed by Herman Hollerith to handle data from decennial census • Hollerith’s company eventually became the core of IBM COMP6005 An Introduction to Computing - Session One: History of Computers

  4. History of Computers • 1835-1900s: First programmable machines • 1835 – Babbage described analytical machine COMP6005 An Introduction to Computing - Session One: History of Computers

  5. History of Computers • 1930s-1960s: Desktop calculators • 1930s – Desktop calculators able to add, subtract, multiply, divide • 1948 – the Curta; small, portable mechanical calculatir approx. size of pepper grinder • 1961 – first electronic desktop calculator considered to be by Sumlock Comptometer (Anita C/VII) • 1963 – four-function EC-130 with 13-digit capacity; $2200 • 1965 – LOCI-2 by Wang Laboratories COMP6005 An Introduction to Computing - Session One: History of Computers

  6. History of Computers • Pre-1940: Analog computers • Used continuously varying amounts of physical quantities (voltages, currents, rotational speed of shafts) to represent quantities being processed • Not very flexible and needed to be reconfigured/reprogrammed manually to switch from one problem to another • Most widely developed used for aiming weapons; e.g: Norden bombsight and artillery aiming for battleships COMP6005 An Introduction to Computing - Session One: History of Computers

  7. History of Computers • 1940s and early 1950s: First electrical digital computers (First Generation) • Electronic circuits, relays, capacitors, vacuum tubes replaced mechanical equivalents; by 1954, magnetic core memory replacing most other forms of temporary storage • 1940 – first computing machine used remotely over phone line • 1945 – US-built ENIAC 1,000 times faster than contemporaries • Colossus was first totally electronic computing device • 1941 – Z3 by Konrad Zuse becaome first functional program-controlled computer COMP6005 An Introduction to Computing - Session One: History of Computers

  8. History of Computers • 1940s and early 1950s: First electrical digital computers (First Generation) • 1947 – invention of transistor to replace valves • 1950 – MESM became operational • 1951 – LEO I ran the world’s first regular routine office computer job • 1951 – UNIVAC was the first ‘massed produced’ computer; 46 machines sold at more than US$1 million each • 1955-1957 – FORTRAN developed and released • 1955 – microprogramming invented by Maurice Wilkes • 1956 – IBM sold its first magnetic disk system (RAMAC: Random Access Method of Accounting and Control) COMP6005 An Introduction to Computing - Session One: History of Computers

  9. History of Computers • Late 1950s and early 1960s: Second Generation • Transistorized computers normally referred to as Second Generation • Computers became smaller – IBM 1620 was size of office desk, as opposed to IBM 650 which weighed over 900kg with power supply of 1350kg, both held in separate cabinets of approx. 1.5 metres by 0.9 metres by 1.8 metres • Second generation computers still expensive however • Mainly used by universities, governments and large corporations COMP6005 An Introduction to Computing - Session One: History of Computers

  10. History of Computers • Late 1950s and early 1960s: Second Generation • 1959 – 12,000 medium scale IBM 1401 shipped; most successful machine in computer history at the time • 1960 – 2,000 IBM 1620; smaller, transistor based • 1960 – DEC launched the PDP-1 to be used by technical staff in labs and for research • 1961 – first dual processor and virtual memory computer released (B5000) • 1962 – IBM S/360 series able to run same software at different combinations of speed, capacity and price COMP6005 An Introduction to Computing - Session One: History of Computers

  11. History of Computers • Post-1960: Third Generation and beyond • Use of computers became more popular • Invention of microchip (integrated circuit) by Jack St. Clair • Microchip later led to invention of microprocessor at Intel • 1970 – Microprocessor led to development of small, low-cost computers for ownership by individuals and small businesses (microcomputer) COMP6005 An Introduction to Computing - Session One: History of Computers

  12. Timeline • http://www.scsite.com/dc2005/index.cfm?action=time&chapter=home COMP6005 An Introduction to Computing - Session One: History of Computers

  13. Links • References • http://www.computernostalgia.net • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colossus_computer • http://www.scsite.com/dc2005/ • Of Interest • http://www.picotech.com/applications/colossus.html • http://www.cs.ncl.ac.uk/research/pubs/books/papers/133.pdf COMP6005 An Introduction to Computing - Session One: History of Computers

  14. Assignment • Go through the online Timeline as referenced on the relevant slide • Together with these slides, develop a general understanding of the steps that brought us to current day levels of computing • Be ready to discuss in class COMP6005 An Introduction to Computing - Session One: History of Computers