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Australia in global flows. KGA171 The Global Geography of Change Presented by Associate Professor Elaine Stratford Semester 1. Part 1. Looking back, looking forward. Revising Lecture 7.2.

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australia in global flows

Australia in global flows

KGA171 The Global Geography of Change

Presented by Associate Professor Elaine Stratford

Semester 1

revising lecture 7 2
Revising Lecture 7.2

Name some of the salient characteristics of liberalism. How would you distinguish between classical and social liberalism? Why is that distinction important in terms of welfare?

What did John Locke mean by the term fungible property in relation to land?

How did Kant’s view of property differ from Locke’s and why is this a concern for geographers?

Define usufruct. Can you explain its relationship to modern ideas of sustainability?

What is neoliberalism and what are its major characteristics?

Describe economic globalization’s key elements, and explain the two reasons Bergman and Renwick argue we need to pay attention to this phenomenon.

What is foreign direct investment and how has it transformed economic relations across states?

Exemplify one instance each of cultural homogenization, hybridity and resistance.

A Woman Thinking

learning objectives
Learning Objectives

Module 7 Lecture 3


demonstrate knowledge of geographical concepts, earth and social systems and spatial patterns of change

create and interpret basic maps, graphs and field data

identify and analyse different viewpoints to contribute to debates about global development

communicate in reflective and academic writing, referencing literature when needed

  • be able to
    • explain the relationship between Australia’s experiences of colonization and modernization with particular reference to
      • demographic trends
      • patterns of economic activity and
      • characteristics of postindustrial society
textbook reading
Textbook Reading

Bergman and Renwick (2008) pp.491-99

Critical reading

What is the author’s purpose?

What key questions or problems does the author raise?

What information, data and evidence does the author present?

What key concepts does the author use to organize this information, this evidence?

What key conclusions is the author coming to? Are those conclusions justified?

What are the author’s primary assumptions?

What viewpoints is the author writing from?

What are the implications of the author’s reasoning?

[from Foundation for Critical Thinking]

Old Woman Reading a Lectionary, Gerard Dou


Australia’s population:

a recent burst of growth

Population 25 May 2010: 22.35 million

ABS (2009) Cat No 4102.0 Australian Social Trends Data Cube – Population, 30 June 2009

nascent ideas of a carrying capacity
Nascent ideas of a carrying capacity

Griffith Taylor, taken during tenure at the University of Toronto, where he went after being vilified by the ‘boosterists’ for his views on population limits in Australia.

See Joe Powell (1997) The pulse of citizenship: reflections on Griffith Taylor and ‘nation-planning ‘, Australian Geographer 28(1) pp.39-52.



Rising since 2004 to

highest rate since 1977

  • TFR
  • 2.01
  • 2001 1.73
  • 1.77
  • 2007 1.92
  • 2008 1.97

ABS (2009) Births 2008, 3301.0. ABS, Canberra, pp.8, 12, 13.


Life Expectancy

Life expectancy of indigenous Australians is 17 years shorter than average

49% and 61% of indigenous Australian adults are smokers and diagnosed as obese respectively

(compared to the national average of 22% and 48% respectively)

ABS (2006) Measures of Australia’s Progress 2006, 1370.0. ABS, Canberra, p.26.

net overseas migration nom directly dependent on policy highly variable now at unprecedented levels
Net Overseas Migration (NOM)directly dependent on policy, highly variable, now at unprecedented levels

ABS (2009)Births 2008, 3301.0. ABS, Canberra, p.22.

NOM (000s)

1988 173

1990 97

1992 51

1994 56

1996 97

1998 89

2000 111

2002 110

2004 106

2006 182

2008 253

2009* 297

ABS (2006) Measures of Australia’s Progress 2006, 1370.0. ABS, Canberra, p.26.

*Sept 08-Sept 09


Population Projections: the twenty-first century?It is all about choice: that is, without immigration, population growth will shift from positive to negative

ABS (2009) Australian Social Trends 2009 4102.0, ABS, Canberra.


A suburban-coastal society

% of pop

Major cities 65.9

Inner regional 20.6

Outer regional 10.5

Remote 1.8

Very remote 1.1

See also Bradfield water scheme dream lives on

ABS (2003) Social Trends 2003, ABS, Canberra, pp.7-8

a multicultural society
A multicultural society

Sydney: people not fluent in English

Immigrant composition (percent)

Europe 11

Asia 6

N & S America 1

N Africa/Mid East 1

Sub Saharan Africa 1

Red >20%

ABS (2006) Measures of Australia’s Progress 2006, 1370.0. ABS, Canberra, pp.26-28.


-ve change

+ve change

Australia’s progress1998-2008

ABS (2009) Measures of Australia’s Progress 2009, 1383.0.55.001 ABS, Canberra.

the big picture
The Big Picture

The opening of the Parliament of Australia on 9 May 1901, Melbourne, Australia

Tom Roberts, 1903

from australia s century since federation at a glance
From Australia’s century since Federation at a glance

“Economic growth (Chart 1) in the first five decades following Federation was highly volatile. Years of very strong economic growth of over 5 and 10 per cent were interspersed with years of very large declines in activity” (

change in percentage employed in industry groups in each mainland capital in 1971 and 1991
Change in percentage employed in industry groups in each mainland capital in 1971 and 1991

Forster, C. (2004) Australian cities: continuity and change, Oxford University Press, South Melbourne, pp. 1-34.

economic development
Economic development

“progressively increasing the value of goods and services that a place is able to produce in order to enjoy or to export” (Bergman and Renwick 2008, p.496).


Characteristics of postindustrial society

  • gender roles and relations – workforce changes, non-traditional familism
  • politics – civil rights, peace, environmentalism, feminism
  • education –innovation, global professions, knowledge economies; see Gillard’s university reforms
  • leisure – consumerism, tourism, world music/food
  • values – secularism, multiculturalism, new age spirituality
  • place – global village, local heritage
getting ready for exam revision
Getting ready for exam revision?

Please do not hesitate to contact me about any aspect of lectures in KGA171.


0409 956 384


6226 2462


For issues related to unit coordination, see and for issues related to workshops see either or