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CIVIL SOCIETY IN POLAND Case study. Prepared for international conference The Logic of Civil Society in New Democracies: East Asia and East Europe. Taipei, June 5-7. Politics. Party in power always loses elections. 30. Unemployment rate. Annual GDP growth. 20. 10. 0. -10. -20. ‘89.

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civil society in poland case study

CIVIL SOCIETY IN POLANDCase study

Prepared for international conference

The Logic of Civil Society in New Democracies:

East Asia and East Europe

Taipei, June 5-7

politics
Politics
  • Party in power always loses elections
economic conditions

30

Unemployment rate

Annual GDP growth

20

10

0

-10

-20

‘89

‘90

‘91

‘92

‘93

‘94

‘95

‘96

‘97

‘98

‘99

‘00

‘01

‘02

‘03

‘04

‘05

‘06

‘07

‘08

‘09

Economic conditions

Annual GDP growth (data of Central Statistical Office). Projections for 2009 vary.Unemployment rate (Rounded. Pct. of economically active population. January results for each year. Data of Central Statistical Office).

1989-1992 Transformation shock

1993-2000 Sustained growth

2001-2002 Crisis

2003-2008 Pre- and post-EU accession boom

civil society and the state
Civil society and the state
  • 1989-1990: Effective and legal freedom of association.Introduction of self-government
  • 1999: De-centralization reforms
attitude to poland s membership in european union

100%

Supporters

90%

80%

70%

60%

50%

40%

30%

20%

10%

Opponents

0%

VI

V

V

IV

VIII

V

XII

V

II

V

IX

III

VII

I

V

IX

I

V

IX

I

IV

IX

II

V

IX

I

IV

X

I

VII

IV

XI

I

IV

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

Source: CBOS

Undecided

Attitude to Poland's membership in European Union

1989: Independence

1994: Start of EU accession negotiations

1999: NATO membership

2002-2004: Final stage of negotiations, referendum, EU accession

attitude to poland s membership in nato
Attitude to Poland's membership in NATO

Supporters

Opponents

Don't know

IX 2007

78%

11%

11%

II 2009

80%

11%

9%

Source: CBOS

  • universal support for EU and NATO membership
evaluation of current situation 1989 2009
Evaluation of current situation 1989-2009

Evaluation of current situation in Poland (3-month moving average)

80%

Bad

70%

60%

50%

40%

Good

30%

20%

10%

Don’t know

0%

III

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

Source: CBOS

1990-1992 Disenchantment with changes

1993-1995 Gradual return of optimism

1996-1999 Sustained positive evaluations

1999-2001 Continuing slide

2002-2007 Crisis in collective psychological well-being, with brief return of hope in early 2006

2007-2008 Return of optimism, checked by the crisis

number of events
Number of events

Average pct. of positive evaluations of current situation

No. of protests

50%

400

40%

300

30%

200

20%

100

10%

0%

0

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

  • in good times there are more protests
organizers
Organizers
  • trade unions organized the majority of events for which the organization is recorded
organizations leading or sponsoring the event no of events
Organizations leading or sponsoring the event (no. of events)

Labor unions

Professional organizations

Political parties

Youth organizations

200

150

100

50

0

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

  • unions decrease in importance
protesting groups
Protesting groups
  • manual workers protest the most
  • youth & local groups consistently strong
protesting groups no of events
Protesting groups (no. of events)

workers

farmers

service industries

public sector

  • relative importance of workers diminish
  • 1996-98 rise in protests by public sector employees and healthcare specialist coincides with reform preparation
  • farmers active during early transformation and late 1990s (Samoobrona), later fade away

200

150

100

50

0

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

methods of protest
Methods of protest

most common

less common

Strike

Demonstration. march. rally

pen letters.appeals

Riots

Occupationof public buildings

Blockadeof road.

picket

Symbolicmanifestation

180

60

160

50

140

40

120

100

30

80

20

60

40

10

20

0

0

’89

‘90

‘91

‘92

‘93

’94

’95

’96

’97

’98

’99

’00

’01

’02

’03

’04

’89

’90

’91

’92

’93

’94

’95

’96

’97

’98

’99

’00

’01

’02

’03

’04

  • strikes diminish in importance (from 1st to 5th most common method)
  • methods becomeless disruptive
methods of protest by type of organization leading or sponsoring of events
Methods of protest by type of organization leading or sponsoring (% of events)
  • demonstration most common method regardless of organizer
  • only 21% of union protests are strikes
demands
Demands
  • economic demands most common
economic demands
Economic demands

No. of events with ec. dem.

Material compens.

Events with economic demands as pct. of all events in a year

200

80%

150

60%

100

40%

50

20%

0

0%

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

... but becoming gradually less important

size pct of cases
SizePct. of cases

37.0%

17.2%

16.4%

9.4%

7.6%

7.2%

5.2%

0-20

21-200

201-500

501--1000

1001--2000

2001--10.000

over 10.000

No. of participants

Data are available for 45.3% of events. Descriptions suggest that many events for which size was not recorded were small

  • small events predominate
intervention by authorities of events
Intervention by authorities (% of events)
  • authorities intervene in 10% of cases
intervention of events
Intervention (% of events)

20%

15%

10%

5%

0%

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

  • attitude of authorities to protests changed, but there is no clear trend
intervention of events in which intervention was recorded
Intervention (% of events in which intervention was recorded)
  • young people are at the receiving end of the stick
protest activities in europe

Spain

Luxembourg

France

Italy

Germany

Belgium

Denmark

Austria

Sweden

Ireland

Greece

United Kingdom

Czech Republic

Portugal

Netherlands

Slovakia

Slovenia

Hungary

Estonia

Finland

Poland

Protest activities in Europe

Respondent had taken part in lawful public demonstration (% of adults)

22,4%

17,3%

14,5%

11,2%

9,3%

7,5%

7,1%

7.0%

6,3%

5,8%

4,5%

4,2%

3,7%

  • culture of protest weakly developed in CEE
  • Poland at the bottom of the ranking

3,7%

3,4%

3,3%

2,8%

2,8%

2,1%

2%

1,5%

ESS data 2002-2007

activity in organizations

Finland

31,9%

Sweden

25,2%

Denmark

22,1%

Belgium

21,5%

Netherlands

21,4%

Austria

21,2%

Luxembourg

20,9%

Germany

19,6%

France

16,1%

Spain

15,5%

Ireland

12,9%

Czech Republic

9,8%

United Kingdom

8,8%

Italy

8,7%

Slovakia

8,4%

Poland

5,5%

Greece

5,4%

Portugal

3,7%

Estonia

3,6%

Slovenia

2,1%

Hungary

1,9%

Activity in organizations

Worked in non-political organization or association in last 12 months (% of adults)

  • this time, Hungary is at the bottom

ESS data

civic activity in organizations

Inactive

Active

Civic activity in organizations

79%

80%

77%

76%

76%

77%

24%

24%

23%

23%

21%

20%

1998

1999

2002

2004

2006

2008

Source: CBOS

  • while ESS surveys prove NGOs are weak in CEE, actual number of activists is almost certainly higher than recorded in them
  • CBOS surveys indicate that up to 20% of adults may be performing some type of civic activity in organizations, many in more than one area.
membership in trade unions

Denmark

Sweden

Finland

Belgium

Luxembourg

Slovenia

Ireland

Austria

Netherlands

United Kingdom

Italy

Greece

Germany

Hungary

Slovakia

Portugal

Czech Republic

Poland

Spain

France

Estonia

Membership in trade unions

(% of employees)

81,9%

74,4%

68,1%

43,6%

42,2%

39,6%

33,8%

28,8%

27,1%

25,9%

23,6%

19,8%

16,3%

15,9%

15,1%

  • unionization in CEE is low, but comparable with many "old" EU countries

14,1%

14,0%

14,0%

13,5%

11,0%

10,2%

ESS data

trade union membership in poland 1989 2008

Solidarity

Trade union membership in Poland 1989-2008

(% of adults in Poland)

Total

OPZZ

25%

20%

15%

10%

5%

0%

V1989

III 990

IV1991

VI1992

XII1993

III1994

IX1995

VI1996

III1999

V2000

VII2001

VII2002

X2003

IX2004

IX2005

II2006

XI2007

XII2008

CBOS data

  • membership falls almost everywhere, but in Poland the drop was steeper than in developed countries
  • drop in membership stopped and now the rate is constant
trust

Denmark

6.92

Finland

6.51

Sweden

6.14

Netherlands

5.74

Ireland

5.59

Estonia

5.25

United Kingdom

5.21

Luxembourg

5.11

Austria

5.09

Spain

4.96

Belgium

4.86

Germany

4.69

France

4.47

Italy

4.41

Czech Republic

4.19

Slovakia

4.17

Hungary

4.12

Slovenia

4.06

Portugal

3.99

Poland

3.79

Greece

3.77

Trust

Most people can be trusted OR You can't be too careful (10-point scale)

  • very low level of trust in CEE

ESS data

the end of the transformation
The end of the transformation?

1. In a long-term perspective, protest density diminishes due to falling stakes.

2. Satisfaction with country situation coincides with  strong protest activity: psycho-social factors must be taken into account as potential explanatory variables

3. Labor mobilization steadily decreases due to consolidation of the economic system on the one hand, and to the weakness of unions on the other

4. In the early years, protesting groups defined by professional status. Later,  young people and neighbors/locals became major players: formation of civil society based on post-material values?

5. Identity articulation rare, occurs in the early transformation years. Early 1990s were formative also in the cultural sphere, pre-determined long-term collective ideological and cultural definitions

6. If the generally accepted indicators are considered, civil society is weak in Central and Eastern Europe in comparison with other EU or OECD countries, and is not improving.

7. Need for other indicators: informal networks may constitute core of civil society in the region. Picture not so bleak if other dimensions are considered