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REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

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  1. Chapter 21 REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

  2. FUNCTIONS OF THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM • The reproductive system has the necessary organs capable of creating offspring • The reproductive system manufactures hormones necessary for the development of reproductive organs and secondary sex characteristics © 2004 Delmar Learning, a Division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

  3. FERTILIZATION • During sexual intercourse sperm from the testes are deposited in the vagina • Millions of sperm cells swim to ovum • Conception occurs when sperm nucleus combines with egg nucleus to form zygote (fertilized egg cell) © 2004 Delmar Learning, a Division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

  4. DIFFERENIATION OF REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS • Reproductive organs are the only organs in the human body that differ between male and female • For about two months the embryo develops without sexual identity • The influence of the X or Y chromosome determines sex of fetus © 2004 Delmar Learning, a Division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

  5. ORGANS OF REPRODUCTION • Female reproductive organs • Two ovaries - Uterus • Two fallopian tubes - Vagina • Male reproductive organs • Two testes - Scrotum • Seminal duct/glands • Penis - Prostate © 2004 Delmar Learning, a Division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

  6. THE MENSTRUAL CYCLE • Stages of the menstrual cycle • Follicle stage • Ovulation stage • Corpus luteum stage • Menstruation stage © 2004 Delmar Learning, a Division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

  7. MENOPAUSE • Menopause is the cessation of a woman’s monthly menstrual cycle • Menopause usually begins between the ages of 45 and 55, signaling the end of follicle growth and ovulation © 2004 Delmar Learning, a Division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

  8. INFERTILITY • Causes of infertility • Damage to fallopian tubes • Low sperm count • Hormonal imbalance © 2004 Delmar Learning, a Division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

  9. Treatments Fertility drugs Artificial insemination Surgery In vitro fertilization (IVF) Egg extraction Gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT) Zygote intrafallopian transfer Donor eggs and embryos INFERTILITY © 2004 Delmar Learning, a Division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

  10. DISORDERS OF THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM • Female reproductive disorders • Amenorrhea • Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) • Dysmenorrhea • Endometriosis • Fibroid tumors © 2004 Delmar Learning, a Division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

  11. DISORDERS OF THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM • Infections of female reproductive organs • Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) • Salpingitis • Toxic shock syndrome • Yeast infection © 2004 Delmar Learning, a Division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

  12. DISORDERS OF THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM • Male reproductive disorders • Epididymitis • Orchitis • Prostatitis • Benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) © 2004 Delmar Learning, a Division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

  13. SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASE • Chlamydia • Genital warts • Gonorrhea • Genital herpes • Syphilis • Trichomonaisis © 2004 Delmar Learning, a Division of Thomson Learning, Inc.