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Early Realization of Fusion Electricity Target and Path. Presented at FESAC Development Path Panel Laurence Livermore National Laboratory, USA on 28 October 2002. by Kunihiko OKANO Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI)

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early realization of fusion electricity target and path

Early Realization of Fusion Electricity Target and Path

Presented at FESAC Development Path Panel Laurence Livermore National Laboratory, USA on 28 October 2002

by Kunihiko OKANO

Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI)


Based on the contributions by

K. Tokimatsu (RITE)

S. Konishi (JAERI),

Y. Asaoka, R. Hiwatari and K. Tomabechi (CRIEPI)


By what time the fusion should be ready?(1) From an environmental point of view

Our target to keep the concentration of CO2 less than 550ppm after 2100

What we have to do?

1) Immediately

Reduce the gradient of CO2 production by using all the available technologies

2)After the middle of this


Reduce further by Introducing new technologies

There are a lot of competitors. If fusion is not ready in time as one of these new technologies, the motives (and budget) for fusion study might be diminished.


By what time the fusion should be ready?(2) Technological maximum of deployment pace

Pace of fusion energy deployment is restricted by TBR and plant manufacturing capacity

How high pace is possible?

Asaoka et.al, Fusion Technol. 39(2001)518 Tokimatsu et al., Fus. Science & Technol. 41(2002)831

IIC case (Initial Intro. Constraint)

Initially, TBR is a major constraint. To achieve a similar pace to the history of fission plants, TBR=1.08 is required (with 75% plant availability).

After 100 plants constructed , the manufacturing capacity may become the major constraint;

we assume 100GW/y as an upper limit.


Fusion plants (estimated)


History of Fission plants


Capacity (GW)


This curve gives a possiblemaximum pace. The actual pace and the share should be determined by competition with the other energy sources and such an analysis requires a sophisticated model for the global energy assessment.



0 10 20 30 40 50

Time (years)


By what time the fusion should be ready?(3) Break even cost for fusion plants

K. Tokimatsu used a world energy and environment analysis model code LDNE21 to assess a possible contribution of fusion energy in the world energy supply.

In the BAU (Business as Usual) case, break even cost for fusion is less than 50 mil/kWh in 2050, which may be difficult to achieve by fusion plants: No contribution by fusion will be expected.

In the 550ppm case, the break even cost in 2050 is 50-110 mil/kWh, which may be attainable.

ARIES-RS (N=5.0): COE=64-86mil/kWh

COEn=COE/COEcoal =1.5-2.0 (in USA)

R. Miller, Fus. Eng. Des. 49-50(2000)33

CREST (N=5.5): COE=12yen/kWh

COEn=1.2 (in Japan)

K. Okano et al. Nucl. Fus., 40(2000)635.

Our possible target for 1st commercial plant: COEn<1.5


By what time the fusion should be ready?(4) Possible contribution of fusion energy

In the LDNE21 model, the break even COE at the introduction year is assumed and the COE will be reduced by a rate of 2.3%/y for the initial 25 years. The maximum pace is limited by the above IIC case.

The calculation gives the shares of various energies so that the global energy cost is minimized.

Early introduction of fusion is critical in order to provide a significant contribution of the fusion energy.

"Introduction in 2070" seems too late in order to meet people's expectation as a New Technology.

A fusion plant of COEn<1.5 by the middle of this century. How?


How to achieve COEn<1.5 (in the case of Japan)

For 3GWth output:

A simple scaling proposed by CRIEPI based on COE analysis in Japan, where a plant availability =0.75 has been assumed.

Examples for COEn=1.5: Bmax=20T(on coil), N=3.4 thermal efficiency th=40%

Bmax=16T(on coil), N=3.9 thermal efficiency th=40%

The early DEMO on the fast-track must be designed sufficiently conservatively, but also the operative range must cover the above parameter ranges.


Requirements from a view point of utility and targets

*Subcommittee of the Fusion Council for Fusion Development Strategy held by the Atomic Energy Commission.


Fusion Energy Development Strategy of Japan





Long time burn at Q>10 with technology integration (except for blanket)

Burn control for Q>10, N<3, steady state



GWe level

based on Ferritic steel and water cooling

but complete replacement by advanced blankets will be possible

Advanced plasma high p for steady state high N for low cost (compact) high Q burning control

ITER + supporting machine like JT60SC

Fully steady state burn with N>3.5 with suitable HH & fGW

Advanced materials long life high temp.



Reactor scale>3dpa

Small specimen>100dpa

ITER test module

Blanket development TBR >1 high efficiency easy maintenance

1MW demo

SC water Gas Liq.metal

developed in parallel

Burn up ~20% High efficiency

developed in parallel

13T 16T 20T

Advanced Technology for non-replaceable compo. ex. Super conductor

High magnetic field High current density


based on the presentation by Prof. Inoue at Int. Sym. for ITER, Jan 24, 2002


Design policy for DEMO plant by CRIEPI

It is mandatory to demonstrate net electric power > 0MW in the initial phase of DEMO operation. The design must be sufficiently conservative, like ITER. Major parameters and basic components must be tested by ITER. We assume a minimum extrapolation from the high Q operation of ITER (not advanced operational mode).

1) Net TBR>1 must be achieved

(with Pw~1MW/m2 at initial phase, ~3MW/m2 at final phase)

2) At least, stable net electric power generation must be demonstrated:

Pnet = (gross power) - (circulating power)

Pnet >0 must be guaranteed with minimum extrapolation from ITER ignition plasma parameters (for example N<2.0, HH<1, fGW<0.9).

This is because that we have to start the DEMO design within 5 to 8 years after ITER first plasma (2014?), in order to complete the construction of DEMO plant and to demonstrate Pnet>0 before 2035-40.


3) The plant must have a capacity to test advanced plasma up to N>3.5 (and Pf up to 3GWth), which may be attained during the ITER operation after the initial phase of BPP. It will allow to achieve 400-600MWe in the net electric power and a next path toward COEn<1.5.

    • Note: N>3.5 will require "MHD stabilizing shell" in the breeding blanket (like CREST), which will reduce the TBR by several percents.
  • 4) Practicability of maintenance scenario must be demonstrated by DEMO. In the final stage of operation, a high plant availability must be demonstrated by achieving a continuous operation for about one year and the necessary maintenance period less than about 60 days. (The life-averaged availability of DEMO is inessential.)
  • 5) The initial (conservative design) blanket may be replaced by an advanced one, for example, th>40% by ODS steel and super-critical water, which allows Pnet~1GWe. This is the final target of the DEMO plant.
    • Note: Fully replaceable blanket widens the development path of fusion reactor. The maximum use of this feature is a key for early realization of fusion energy.

Parameter Scan for DEMO by System CodeFUSAC (fusion power plant system analysis code)

With an extensive analysis by FUSAC, covering the plasma parameter ranges listed in the table, the database for about hundred thousand (100,000) operational points has been constructed .

* Based on the communication with the ITER team, we convinced for the feasibility of the quoted values. # The 200MW limit comes also from a possible number of ports available in the Tokamak machine.


R. Hiwatari et al, J. Plas. Fus. Res., Vol.78, No.10 (2002)

Boundary lines of N, HH and fGW show the design points where the maximum Pf has been obtained with the corresponding N, HH and fGW, respectively.


With N=1.8, HH=1.0, fGW= 0.85 (ITER ref. design), Pnet=0 is achievable.

With N=3.5, HH=1.2, fGW <1.0 (possible by ITER)Pnet=600MWe is achievable.


Pw=1 MW/m2

Pnet=900MWe with th =40%,




with N=2.5, Pnet=0

with N=4.0, Pnet=600MWe

This is desirable, but may be too optimistic. We may fail for Pnet=0.



with N=1.5, Pnet=0

with N=3.0, Pnet=600MWe

This is too pessimistic and too expensive. No next path toward COEn<1.5 will be expected with N<3.



1. An earlier introduction of fusion results in a larger impact in the world

energy supply.

Introduction in 2070 seems too late, to satisfy people's (tax payer's)


Possible maximum share of fusion energy in 2100 is

~20% for 2050y introduction and nearly zero for 2070y introduction.

2. Break even cost for fusion in 2050 is estimated as 50-110 mil/kWh for

the 550ppm restriction case.

Based on the previous reactor design studies, COE less than

50 mil/kWh seems difficult to achieve, but 70-100 mil/kWh might be



3. If we seriously consider to construct and operate a DEMO plant

by 2035-40, the design must be sufficiently conservative and

practical, because the failure of initial operation for Pnet>0 is


Such a plan should be a practical one rather than an overly


4. Based on the conservative design policy described above,

a design with R~7.5m can be a candidate for Demo, because

a) With ITER reference parameters (bn=1.8, HH=1.0, fGW=0.85),

Pnet = 0 with Pw~1.0MW/m2

b) With parameters of advanced plasma (possible by ITER)

(bn=3.5, HH=1.2, fGW=1.0),

Pnet=600-900MWwith Pw=3~4MW/m2is attainable.

Then the path toward the break even cost may be in sight.

A design of DEMO with R=7.25m is in progress in the CRIEPI,

although another optimization may be found with different design policies.