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So, to reach maximum humidity on a hot day, we need 10 gallons of water to fill a 10 gallon bucket. 100% humidity is 10 gallons of water, relative to a 10 gallon bucket.How many gallons of water are needed to get 100% humidity on a cool day, where the bucket is six gallons in size?<we need just six gallons, because on a cool day it takes less water to fill the “bucket” to humidity saturation>So, humidity is always relative to capacity.

how is a convective cell different from a lava lamp it really isn t
How is a convective cell different from a lava lamp? <it really isn’t>

Or an orographic/mountain flow?

convective cell
Convective Cell

Condensation phase – heat being released when humidity turns back into visible water

Evaporation phase – hiding heat in vapor

all four types of storms warm wet are lighter than cool dry
All Four Types of Stormswarm & wetare lighter thancool & dry

Stormy side – rain/snow

Sunny or dry side


Cyclonic storm is counterclockwise

Anti-cyclone is clockwise and is usually sunny or clear skies



Which of these would experience clean air and rain versus sunny conditions with bad air quality?

what goes up must come down
What goes up must come down

If the front side of a stormy is rising air and release of heat for more rising air,

then . . . . .

The backside of a storm is descending air. On occasion, descending air can be concentrated into a high-speed ‘micro-burst’.


Of the four storm types, frontal or wedge weather is the most prone to violence and is a major source of precipitation in the mid-latitudes.The United States is famous for ‘frontal/wedge’ storms. At least 90% of all tornadoes occur in the U.S. “tornado alley”

frontal weather

High winds and heavy rain can develop as cold air helps warm air to rise and heat itself further by condensation

Frontal Weather


ordinary cumulus clouds rising air cools and condenses hidden heat comes back out with the water
Ordinary Cumulus Clouds(rising air cools and condenses  hidden heat comes back out with the water)

Descending air tends to show clear skies

Rising air condenses out a cloud and warms itself for more rising


There must be a lot of humidity (with hidden heat) in this area, because the cloud is building as it releases heat and water.

There must be a lot of humidity (with hidden heat) in this area, because the cloud is building as it releases heat and water.

Cumulus cloud building as rising air speeds up by re-heating itself.


This rising air is “cyclonic” or turning counterclockwise as it rises.

Massive amounts of hidden heat come back out as air rises quickly. The release of latent heat causes even more rapidly rising air.


Tornadoes can result when the Coriolis force causes rapidly rising air to turn counterclockwise as it rises.

Potentially deadly storm as vast heat comes out of ‘hiding’ – high wind as air rises very quickly.


If rising air accelerates to 60 mph . . . .

then wind along the ground must be going 150-200 mph in order to turn counterclockwise as it rises.

To “feed” a tornado with rising air, ground wind must be super-fast wind.

That is what causes so much tornado damage.

when rising air accelerates due to big difference between cold dry air and warm wet air
When rising air accelerates due to big difference between cold/dry air and warm/wet air.

Source: MS Office freeware.


Moving air creates ‘static’ electricity

Sort of like storing energy in a battery

drought lack of expected precipitation
Drought – lack of expected precipitation

Can be ‘heat driven’


Climate change


A “La Nina” condition (more about this later)


Normal oscillations in weather

hypothermia and heat stress
Hypothermia and Heat Stress

Humidity has a powerful effect when air is either hot or cold.

In between high and low, ordinary room temperatures don’t feel much different with higher or lower humidity.

So, swamp coolers work pretty well – the extra humidity from hiding heat does not carry a heat index penalty or a hypothermia penalty.

In extreme cold, the air can’t hold much humidity anyway, so only wind child is an issue, unless you fall into water.


This chart does not include humidity, which in COOL air could cause hypothermia. That is because really COLD air can’t hold much humidity anyway.


HailStorms are low pressure events – rising airStrong updrafts blow rain back up to where a new later of ice can freeze on it.It falls again, only to be blown back up for yet another layer of ice. Eventually, the ice pellet becomes baseball-size or even as big as a basketball before finally escaping the updraft and melting somewhat as it falls to earth.

hurricane also called cyclone or typhoon
Hurricane (also called ‘cyclone’ or ‘typhoon’)

All storms involve rising air that turns counter-clockwise


U.S. tornado season starts earlier than hurricane season because land masses heat up more quickly than do oceans, even as there is still cold air and even snow on the ground nearby. That is a perfect combination for conflict.Meanwhile, oceans warm more slowly and cool off more slowly, so it is almost winter before hurricane season ends.


All storms involve counterclockwise rising air. As rising air condenses out more water and re-warms itself, wind speeds rise also.Rising air can rise faster if cooler, dryer air is nearby - - something to “push off of”


So, tornadoes and hurricanes often occur when an air mass with excessive amounts of heat and humidity runs into an air mass with cool, dry air.The heavier cool/dry air pushes under – helping the more buoyant warm/wet air to rise even faster, causing even faster wind speeds that can eventually become a tornado or hurricane of super-fast air that is “loaded” with excess heat and water that it can ‘blow off’


U.S.A. has more than 90%

Bangladesh hosts many of the remainder.


US Southeast ought to be a desert, but is warm/humid, flat country where c/d can mix with w/w

Tornado Alley is where cool/dry air from the north and west meets warm/wet air from the south and east.

ktvx 2007 david dingle
KTVX, 2007, David Dingle

I-15 near Tremonton

  • Policy failures that provide false sense of security?
  • Running out of the safest sites?
  • Hurricanes include bands of strong thunderstorms, sometimes called ‘heat towers’ because of how much latent heat they carry to high altitudes

Hurricane can contain hundreds of thunderstorms and dozens of tornadoes

300-600 miles in diameter


¼ mile


Compared to a simple dust devil, hurricane storm surge has . . . . Water.1. Low atmospheric pressure2. High wind 3. High waves (wind driven - upstream)4. Heavy rainfall (downstream)All of these are driven by latent heat hidden in the atmosphere. When clouds form by rising, cooling air, latent heat is released along with water vapor, adding “fuel” to the storm. Dust devils are only about rising hot air that cools and calms quickly with altitude.