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Potential effects of CMB product water on soil, water, plants, and land resources. Kristin Keith James Bauder Dept of Land Resources & Environmental Sciences Montana State University. Photograph compliments of John Wheaton. Clouds . 0.001%. Glaciers/Ice . 2.1%. other. Oceans .

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potential effects of cmb product water on soil water plants and land resources

Potential effects of CMB product water on soil, water, plants, and land resources

Kristin Keith

James Bauder

Dept of Land Resources & Environmental Sciences

Montana State University

Photograph compliments of John Wheaton

slide2

Clouds

0.001%

Glaciers/Ice

2.1%

other

Oceans

Groundwater

Lakes/Stream

97.2%

0.6%

s 0.01%

Water is a Finite Resource

background information
Background Information
  • Extraction of CBM requires withdrawal of large amounts of from coal seams containing methane.
  • Projections call for disposal or management of one quarter million acre-feet of product water annually in the Powder River Basin.
  • Water Quality Issue: Common signature of CBM product water is salinity x sodicity.
objectives
Objectives
  • What is saline water? What is sodic water?
  • Current CBM product water management methods
  • MSU research on potential effect of CMB product water on soil, plants, water, and land resources
  • Can we manage CBM product water?
what is saline water and why is it considered saline
What is saline water and why is it considered saline?
  • Saline water has a relatively high concentration of dissolved salts.
  • Salinity of water is referred to in terms of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS),
    • salinity is estimated by measuring the Electrical Conductivity (EC) of water
  • The U.S. Department of Agriculture defines water with an EC greater than 3.0 dS/m as saline.
what is sodic water and why is it considered sodic
What is sodic water and why is it considered sodic?
  • The sodicity of water is expressed as the Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR) which is:
    • (These values are in meq/L)
  • Sodic water is any water with a SAR greater than 12. Sodic water is not necessarily saline.
current cbm product water management
Current CBM Product Water Management
  • Discharged into a stream channel
  • Impounded
    • Holding pond, infiltration pond,
    • “0 discharge” pond
  • Land applied to crop or range land
slide8

MSU CBM Product Water Research Goals

  • Understand the chemistry, quantity, and distribution of CBM product water in the Montana portion of Powder River Basin.
  • Assess the interaction between surface dispersed CBM product water and soil, water, plants, and land resources.
  • Conduct research with the primary focus of defining CBM product water management strategies which will ensure sustainability of Montana’s soil, plant, and water resources.
slide9

Soil Chemistry Responses to Saline-Sodic Water

Kimberly Robinson

MSU Graduate Research

Objective: Determine how valley soils which may be subjected to irrigation will react with repeated wetting with saline-sodic water

irrigation simulation conditions
Irrigation Simulation Conditions
  • Water Quality
    • Powder River
      • EC = 1.6 dS/m SAR = 4.5 pH = 8.0
    • CBM Product Water
      • EC = 3.1 dS/m SAR = 13.0 pH = 8.0
  • Irrigation Treatment
    • Powder River:
      • 1x 5x 5x then distilled water
    • CBM Product Water:
      • 1x 5x 5x then distilled water
what are the common difficulties with the use of sodic water for irrigation
What are the common difficulties with the use of sodic water for irrigation?
  • Use of sodic water for irrigation can be risky business on soils having significant amounts of swelling clay. On such soils:
    • sodium changes soil physical properties, leading to poor drainage and crusting, which can affect crop growth and yield.
    • Irrigation with sodic water on sandy soils does not cause crusting and poor drainage. However, if the water is saline-sodic, it may affect crop growth and yield.
slide19
Suggested range in EC and SAR of irrigation water for various soil texturesSource: Western Fertilizer Handbook
what are the common problems or difficulties with the use of saline water for irrigation
What are the common problems or difficulties with the use of saline water for irrigation?
  • Crop production becomes a problem as salts accumulate in the root zone high enough to negatively affect plant growth.
  • Excess soluble salts in the root zone restrict plant roots from withdrawing water from the surrounding soil.
salinity sodicity tolerance of selected plant species of the northern cheyenne reservation
Salinity & Sodicity Tolerance of Selected Plant Species of the Northern Cheyenne Reservation
  • Nikos J. Warrance
  • MSU Graduate Student Dr. James W. Bauder Krista E. Pearson LRES Department MSU-Bozeman
slide24
Tolerance and/or sensitivity of selected plants on the Northern Cheyenne Reservation to salinity, sodicity, and flooding
  • Understand how native and culturally significant plants would respond to increases in salinity and sodicity.
  • A list of native and culturally significant plant species was obtained from the Department of Environmental Protection, Northern Cheyenne Tribe.
  • A thorough search of references dealing with salinity, and sodicity tolerances for the plants in question was then undertaken.
examples of culturally significant plant species of the northern cheyenne reservation
Sensitive (EC < 2 dS/m, SAR 1.6 - 8

June/Service Berry

Red Osier Dogwood

Red Shoot Goose Berry

Chokecherry

Wild Plum

Quaking Aspen

Leafy Aster

Red Raspberry

Moderately Sensitive (EC 2-4 dS/m, SAR <8)

Common Spikerush

Field Horsetail

Horsemint

Sweet Medicine

Sandbar Willow

Snowberry

Cattail

Sweet Grass

Saw Beak Sedge

Stinging Nettle

Western Yarrow

Examples of culturally significant plant species of the Northern Cheyenne Reservation
slide26

Chemistry of CBM Product Water upon Surface Dispersal

Holly Sessoms

MSU Graduate Research

Objective:Determine the behavior of chemistry of CBM product water in stream channels

slide27

Change in water chemistry for three water qualities over a 9 day time period;subject to evapoconcentration.

Initial pH

Final pH

Initial EC

Final EC

Initial SAR

Final SAR

% Change EC

% Change SAR

WQ6

7.4

8.1

3.07

3.75

3.7

4.4

22.15

18.92

WQ7

7.7

8.4

3.36

4.01

12.5

18

19.35

44.00

WQ8

7.5

9.1

5.42

6.71

20.7

33.8

23.80

63.29

Average % Change

21.77

42.07

other research
Other Research
  • Aaron DeJoia
    • Cascade Earth Sciences
  • Change in water chemistry from outfall to irrigation
summary
Summary

Sustainable CBM product water management requires rigorous monitoring and coordinated management

  • Essential requirements –
  • Soil, water, and plant baseline information
  • Amount and quality of CBM product water
  • Rigorous monitoring at all points
  • Coordinated water management with multiple strategies