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Welcome to. Companion PowerPoint Presentation for the Introduction to Housing textbook. HOUSING POLICY. Occurs at Three Levels. Local level set standards for housing zoning regulations building codes growth plans can access & use federal monies. State level

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Welcome to...

Companion PowerPoint Presentation for the Introduction to Housing textbook



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Occurs at Three Levels

Local level

  • set standards for housing

  • zoning regulations

  • building codes

  • growth plans

  • can access & use federal monies


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State level

  • legislation to use available federal monies for state assistance housing programs

  • state certification agencies

  • state housing finance agencies Colorado Housing Finance Agency (CHFA)


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Federal level

  • influence the availability & cost of housing

  • most consistent theme:

    To advance single-family home ownership as the American dream


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How?

  • amortized, long-term mortgages

  • tax deductions on interest & property taxes

  • capital gains tax exclusions

    More important than housing production or providing low-income housing


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How Should Government be Involved?

  • Helping moderate income families buy homes?

  • Helping low-income families to live in decent rental homes?

  • Helping the homeless?

  • Supporting sustainable housing?

  • Supporting universal design?


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OVERVIEW OF POLICY

1930s—Response to the Great Depression

  • First large-scale federal government involvement in housing

  • Built a new mortgage finance system:

    Federal Home Loan Bank Board

    Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Corporation

    Federal Housing Administration (FHA)


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  • These mortgages were:

    government-insured

    long-term

    low downpayment

  • Created a secondary mortgage market

    Federal National Mortgage Association (Fannie Mae)

  • Public Housing


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1940s—World War II

  • Veterans Administration Program (VA)—

    critical housing shortage after war

  • Housing Act of 1949:

    “a decent home and a suitable living environment for every American family” (National Policy)

  • Farmers Home Administration (FmHA)—U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)


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1950s—Renewal of the Cities

  • Programs curtailed due to budget shortfalls

  • Intense urban renewal activity that fostered unassisted construction

  • Slum clearance (destroyed more housing than produced)

  • Legislation tried to perfect existing policy


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1960s—Evolution of Subsidies

  • Urban unrest

  • Rent Supplement (family pays 25% of income towards rent)

  • Section 23

  • U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD)

  • Section 235 that subsidizes interest rates

  • Government National Mortgage Association (Ginne Mae)

  • Focused on specific programs


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1970s—Period of Reassessment

  • Moratorium under Nixon

    equity impact efficiency

  • Community Development Block Grant (CDBG) program—shifted focus to general programs determined at the local level

  • Section 8—certificate of family participation

  • Urban Homesteading


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1980s—Trying to Take the H out of HUD

  • Under Reagan there were drastic cuts in housing funding

  • Focus shifted away from federal government to private businesses & even more to local governments

  • McKinney Act (homeless)—1987

  • Joint Venture for Affordable Housing

  • Fair Housing Amendments—1988

    Fair Housing Law


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1990s—Homelessness & Affordability

  • National Affordable Housing Act

  • Expansion of McKinney Act:

    Persons at risk

    Shelters

    Supportive services

  • HOME & HOPE programs to help with homeownership

  • HUD given a higher profile


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2000+: Expanding Homeownership

  • Rural Housing and Development Program

  • Expansion of CDBG

  • HOME Investment Partnerships—housing needs of lower-income persons

  • Self Help Homeownership Opportunity Program (SHOP)

  • Special Needs Assistance Programs

  • Native American Housing Block Grants

  • Partnership for Advancing Technology in Housing (PATH)


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Goals

  • Reduce housing discrimination

  • Reduce homelessness

  • Create more affordable housing units

  • Increase CDBG funding

  • Increase homeownership