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Robert Marcial, PG&E Pacific Energy Center BioForum – Adapting to Climate Change April 17, 2010. California: A Leader in Energy Efficiency. World and Energy Statistics. Which countries have highest percentage of population? China (20\%) India (18\%) United States (5\%) Indonesia (3\%)

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world and energy statistics
World and Energy Statistics
  • Which countries have highest percentage of population?
    • China (20%)
    • India (18%)
    • United States (5%)
    • Indonesia (3%)
    • Brazil (3%)
world and energy statistics1
World and Energy Statistics
  • Which countries have highest primary fuel consumption?
    • United States (22%)
    • China (14%)
    • Russia (7%)
    • Japan (5%)
    • India (4%)
world and energy statistics2
World and Energy Statistics
  • Which are the leading energy sources by type consumed in U.S. for all end uses?
    • Petroleum (39%)
    • Natural Gas (24%)
    • Coal (23%)
    • Nuclear (8%)
    • Biofuels (4%)
    • Hydroelectric (2%)
world and energy statistics3
World and Energy Statistics
  • Which are the top end uses for primary fuel energy in U.S. buildings (Comm & Res)?
    • Space Heating (25%)
    • Lighting (14%)
    • Water Heating (12%)
    • Space Cooling (11%)
    • Refrigeration (6%)
    • Electronics (5%)
world and energy statistics4
World and Energy Statistics
  • How is energy used in the U.S. by sectors?
    • Industry
    • Transportation
    • Residential
    • Commercial

(35%)

(27%)

(21%)

(17%)

buildings and people
Buildings and People

17%

35%

21%

27%

48%

25%

27%

california energy leadership
California Energy Leadership
  • Legacy of energy innovation
    • Decoupling
    • Loading order
    • Energy efficiency
    • Demand response
  • Progressive state energy policy
    • California Long Term Strategic Plan
    • Go Solar California
    • Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS)
california energy leadership2
California Energy Leadership
  • An 18 cubic foot refrigerator consumed approximately 2,000 kWh/yr in 1970. How much does a high-quality refrigerator of similar size consume today?
    • ~1,000 kWh/yr
    • ~ 500 kWh/yr
    • ~ 400 kWh/yr
    • ~ 250 kWh/yr
california energy leadership3
California Energy Leadership

2,000 kWh

18 ft3 (0.51 m3) frost-free refrigerator

Energy Usage per year

700 kWh

490 kWh

390 kWh

2009

1970

1993

2001

slide13
14,000

12,000

10,000

8,000

KWh

6,000

4,000

2,000

-

2000

1995

1960

1965

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

US

CA

Western Europe

30+ Years of Energy Efficiency Success

Courtesy Art Rosenfeld, California Energy CommissionNote: 2005 – 2008 are forecast data.

about pg e and our business
About PG&E and Our Business
  • What we do:
  • Deliver safe, reliable, and environmentally responsible gas and electricity to approximately 15 million Californians
slide17
1,329

U.S. Average (1)

California’s Average 724

PG&E (2)

2008 641

2007 636

2006 456

2005 489

2004 566

2003 620

Greenhouse Gas Emissions (pounds of CO2 per MWh)

  • (1) Source: U.S. EPA eGRID 2007 Version 1.1 (updated Dec. 2008 and based on 2005 data).
  • (2) PG&E’s emissions rates for delivered electricity were independently verified and registered with the California Climate Action Registry. Given that a portion of the electricity that PG&E delivers comes from unspecified generation sources, the company’s total emissions, and associated emissions rates, may vary from registered figures.
energy efficiency first to reduce co 2 emissions
Energy EfficiencyFirst to reduce CO2 emissions

CO2 in electricity:

1.32 lb/kWh (USA)

0.88 lb/kWh (Cal)

Consumption:

12.7 MWh/cap. (USA)

7.7 MWh/cap. (Cal)

Source: EPA, Inventory of U.S. Green House Gas Emissions and Sinks 1990-2006 February, 2008

CARB, Climate Change Proposed Scoping Plan, a framework for change October, 2008

slide19
McKinsey Potential Study
  • U.S. can reduce energy demand by 23% by 2020
  • U.S. can save $1.2 Trillion
  • $520 Million investment
  • 1.1 GTons CO2 reduction per year
  • Re-think how we legislate
  • Re-think how we do business
decoupling in ca
Decoupling in CA
  • Gas in 1978, electric in 1982
  • Revenues and earnings are independent of sales.
  • California’s IOUs collect the revenues authorized to run the business and provide a return to investors.
  • If sales rise above forecast levels, extra revenues go back to customers.
  • If sales fall below forecast levels, utilities are assured they can recover the shortfall.
  • Decoupling offers the benefits of more consistent revenues, and it helps promote broad, long-term environmental goals.
ca energy action plan loading order
CA Energy Action Plan Loading Order
  • Energy Efficiency & Conservation
  • Demand Response
  • Renewable Resources
  • Distributed Generation
  • Traditional Generation
why do utilities support demand side management
Why Do Utilities Support Demand-Side Management?
  • California customers want it
  • Helps mitigate the impact of demand growth on infrastructure
  • Less expensive than new generation
  • Allows allocation of capital to other needed infrastructure projects
  • It decreases CO2 emissions and impact on the environment
energy efficiency numbers
Energy Efficiency Numbers
  • Since mid 70’s, California’s energy efficiency programs have:
    • Saved customers over $56 billion
    • 30% reduction in per capita CO2 emissions
    • California avoided building 24 power plants
    • What if California had not acted?
california invests in energy efficiency
CFLs use up to 75% less energy and last up to 10 times longer than traditional incandescent lamps.California Invests in Energy Efficiency
  • California is investing $3.13 billion in energy efficiency programs between 2010-2012:
  • Savings Goals:
    • 6,965 GWh (House: 0.006 GWh/yr)
    • 1,537 MW
    • 150.3 MMTherms (House: 500 Therms/yr)
    • 3.07 MMTons of CO2
how it works
How it works
  • Funded explicitly from our customers’ bill (Public Goods Charge for Public Purpose Programs)
  • De-coupling in place
  • Share-holder incentive to generate profit from energy efficiency success
  • Goals and budgets are defined for a 3 year period (program cycle)
cpuc long term plan
CPUC Long Term Plan
  • All new residential construction in California will be zero net energy by 2020
  • All new commercial construction in California will be zero net energy by 2030
  • HVAC will be transformed to ensure that its energy performance is optimal for California’s climate
  • 100% Low income participation
  • Major emphasis on workforce education and training
  • www.californiaenergyefficiency.com
go solar california
Go Solar California
  • 10 year program (2007 – 2016)
  • 3,000 MW, $3.3B
  • California Solar Initiative (940 MW, $2.17B)
  • New Solar Homes Partnership (360 MW, $0.4B)
  • Other (700 MW, $0.78B)
  • Customers must perform energy efficiency audit to be eligible for CSI incentives
  • www.gosolarcalifornia.org
slide32
California’s Electricity Need

2008 System Load (CAISO / PG&E)

MW

Electric demand is highly variable, with peaks that require higher capacity during short periods.

32

slide33
California’s Electricity Need

System Load Duration Curve

California uses 5% of capacity for less than 50 hours per year!

Capacity used to support peak demand is expensive, inefficient and environmentally unfriendly.

Last 25% of capacity needed less than 10% of the time

MW

33

% Time per Year

Source: California Independent System Operator Corporation

demand response benefits
Demand Response Benefits
  • Reduces electrical demand during “critical peak” periods
  • Rewards customers contributing to demand reduction
  • Enables:
    • Reduced need for excess generation capacity to serve peak loads: DR is a “virtual peaking plant”
    • Enhanced electric grid reliability
    • Lower average electric procurement costs
    • Lower environmental impact
dr for home air conditioning
DR for Home Air Conditioning
  • Professionally installed and maintained at zero cost
  • Web-programmable thermostat & switch
  • 15 / 15 minute compressor on/off cycles during power emergencies
  • Opt out any time – owner is in control
  • May 1 – October 31
  • Benefits: reduced outages, lower utility bills, environmental benefits, sustained comfort
california s renewable portfolio standard rps
California’s Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS)

California’s mandate of 20% renewable energy by 2010 is the most aggressive renewable energy goal in the U.S.

California’s Governor recently signed an Executive Order calling for 33% by 2020.

Implementers are pursuing a diverse portfolio that includes both traditional and emerging renewable technologies.

slide37
California leads the way in RPS policy

29 states & DC have an RPS; 6 additional states have goals

WA: 15% by 2020*

ME: 30% by 2000

New RE: 10% by 2017

VT: (1) RE meets any increase in retail sales by 2012; (2) 20% RE & CHP by 2017

MN: 25% by 2025

(Xcel: 30% by 2020)

MT: 15% by 2015

  • NH: 23.8% by 2025

ND: 10% by 2015

MI: 10% + 1,100 MW by 2015*

  • MA: 15% by 2020+1% annual increase(Class I Renewables)
  • OR: 25% by 2025(large utilities)*

5% - 10% by 2025 (smaller utilities)

SD: 10% by 2015

WI: Varies by utility; 10% by 2015 goal

  • NY: 24% by 2013

RI: 16% by 2020

CT: 23% by 2020

  • NV: 25% by 2025*

IA: 105 MW

  • OH: 25% by 2025†
  • CO: 20% by 2020(IOUs)

10% by 2020 (co-ops & large munis)*

  • PA: 18% by 2020†

WV: 25% by 2025*†

  • IL: 25% by 2025
  • NJ: 22.5% by 2021

CA: 20% by 2010

UT: 20% by 2025*

KS: 20% by 2020

VA: 15% by 2025*

  • MD: 20% by 2022
  • MO: 15% by 2021
  • AZ: 15% by 2025
  • DE: 20% by 2019*

33% by 2020 proposed

  • NC: 12.5% by 2021(IOUs)

10% by 2018 (co-ops & munis)

  • DC: 20% by 2020
  • NM: 20% by 2020(IOUs)
  • 10% by 2020 (co-ops)

TX: 5,880 MW by 2015

HI: 40% by 2030

Minimum solar or customer-sited requirement

*

State renewable portfolio standard

Extra credit for solar or customer-sited renewables

State renewable portfolio goal

Includes non-renewable alternative resources

Solar water heating eligible

Source: www.dsireusa.org/ September 2009

solar thermal technologies under contract
Solar Thermal Technologies Under Contract
  • Parabolic Trough
  • Power Tower
  • Compact Linear Fresnel Reflector
  • Dish Engine (SCE/SDG&E)
  • Power Tower (SCE)
  • Trough/Biomass Hybrid
solar pv technologies under contract
Solar PV Technologies Under Contract
  • Fixed Thin Film (a-Si)
  • Tracking Crystalline Silicon
  • Fixed Thin Film (Cd Tel) (SCE)
  • Unspecified CPV (illustrative)
  • Concentrating PV
other renewable technologies under contract
Other Renewable TechnologiesUnder Contract

Biomass Energy

Wind Energy

Geothermal Energy

Small Hydropower (<30MW)

BioGas

Ocean Power

humboldt waveconnect pilot
Humboldt WaveConnect Pilot
  • Ocean wave energy (up to 5MW) pilot study to be conducted off the coast of Humboldt County, Calif.
  • Wave energy converter (WEC) manufacturers can test their devices on a common site and facilitate the development of wave energy technology
  • Power from the WECs for coastal community for the limited time of the pilot license.
  • Most effective WEC technologies will be useed for future projects
building a sustainable electric system
Utility-scale Storage
  • Distributed Storage
  • Rooftop Solar
  • Plug-in Electric Vehicles
  • Wind Farms
  • Solar Farms / Power Plants
Building A Sustainable Electric System

Electric Grid

Customers

Power Plants

  • Nuclear Power Plants
  • Natural Gas Generators
  • Transmission Lines

Smart Grid functionality restores the balance

  • Distribution Substations
  • Hydro Power Plants
largest ami deployment in north america
Largest AMI Deployment in North America
  • Automated meter reading for all customers
    • 10 million meter upgrades by mid-2012
    • A communications network
    • IT systems
  • Frequent meter reads - daily for gas, hourly or 15 minute interval for electric
  • Enhanced customer benefits over time
  • Over 3 million meters deployed to date
    • Installing an average of 13,000 per day
slide44
Overlay with intelligence and automation

Sense

Communicate

Compute

Control

A Smart Grid

PowerPlants

Transmission

Networks

Substations

Distribution

Networks

Consumers

integrated demand side resources
Integrated Demand-Side Resources
  • Automated management of energy use:
  • Automated demand response
  • Voluntary load control
  • Dynamic pricing

On-site generation and storage

Smart charging for electric vehicles

climatesmart how it works
ClimateSmart™How It Works
  • Allows PG&E customers to voluntarily make their electricity and natural gas use “carbon neutral”
  • Around $5 per month for average residential customer
  • Customer payments are tax-deductible and will be invested in a range of innovative greenhouse gas emission reduction projects, such as conserving and restoring California’s forests
  • All projects are new with independently verified emission reductions
climate smart projects
Big River and Salmon Creek Forests
  • The Conservation Fund
  • 600,000 metric tons
  • Arcata Community Forest
  • City of Arcata
  • 40,000 metric tons
  • Methane Capture from Dairy
  • California Bioenergy
  • 75,000 metric tons

Methane Capture from Landfills

  • Recology
  • 90,750 metric tons
Climate Smart Projects
  • Lompico Headwaters Forest
  • Sempervirens Fund
  • 14,000 metric tons

Photo Courtesy Sempervirens Fund

  • Garcia River Forest
  • The Conservation Fund
  • 200,000 metric tons

Photo credit: Douglas Steakley 

pacific energy center
Pacific Energy Center
  • One of three PG&E “centers” (7 in CA) funded by public goods charge offering:
    • Energy efficiency classes
    • Tool Lending Library
    • Technical advice and research assistance
    • More than 500,000 people trained since 1979 by PG&E training centers

www.pge.com/pec

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