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6.03 Determine global trade’s impact on business decision-making. 6.00 Understand economics trends and communication. 5-183 5-184 International Trade. Define the following terms: imports, exports, international trade, absolute advantage, and comparative advantage .

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6 03 determine global trade s impact on business decision making

6.03 Determine global trade’s impact on business decision-making.

6.00 Understand economics trends and communication.

5 183 5 184 international trade
5-183 5-184 International Trade decision-making.

Define the following terms: imports, exports, international trade, absolute advantage, and comparative advantage.

  • Imports – Goods brought into the country

  • Exports – Goods sent to other countries

  • International Trade – Good exchanged between countries

International trade
International Trade decision-making.

  • Absolute Advantage - The general ability to produce more goods or services using fewer resources. A person or country has an absolute advantage in production largely due to superior technology or greater technical efficiency.

    • An absolute advantage exists if a person, country, business, government, or some other entity can produce more output using fewer inputs than a comparable entity.


International trade1
International Trade decision-making.

  • Comparative Advantage - The ability to produce one good at a relatively lower opportunity cost than other goods, especially compared to production in another country.

    • While a person, country, business, government, or other producing entity may or may not have an absolute advantage in production, every producer has a comparative advantage in the production of something.


International trade2
International Trade decision-making.

  • Describe reasons that international trade takes place.

    • Comparative advantage

    • Lack of raw materials or production capabilities

    • Desire to build positive relations

  • List gains from international trade.

    • New products that otherwise wouldn’t be available

    • One nation exports, another nation imports; both should benefit

International trade3
International Trade decision-making.

  • Identify ways in which the U.S. economy is affected by international trade.

    • Positive – gain new products or the raw materials to build products for other countries (Japan)

    • Negative – can lower prices on domestic goods or if we import too much we go into debt

  • Describe types of trade barriers.

    • Tariffs, Quotas, Subsidies of domestic industries


International trade4
International Trade decision-making.

  • Explain techniques used by governments to improve international trade relations.

    • International labor standards

    • Environmental standards

    • Lowering trade barriers to developing countries

    • World Trade Organization (WTO)

5 185 5 186 currency
5-185 5-186 Currency decision-making.

Define the terms exchange rate, exchange-rate quotation, free-floating currency, pegged currency, foreign-exchange market, strong/weak dollar, and arbitrage.

  • Exchange rate - The price of the currency of one country stated in terms of the currency of another country, that is, the rate of exchange of one currency for another. In general, exchange rates reflect the overall health, vitality, and productivity of a nation's economy.


Currency decision-making.

  • Exchange-rate quotation - exchange rate quotation is given by stating the number of units of a price currency that can be bought in terms of 1 unit currency. For example, in a quotation that says the EUR-USD exchange rate is 1.2 USD per EUR, the price currency is USD and the unit currency is EUR.


  • Free-floating currency - also termed a Flexible Exchange Rate, is an exchange rate determined through the unrestricted interaction of supply and demand in the foreign exchange market

  • Pegged currency - its value is maintained by the government in question at a fixed rate relative to the other currency. In 1983 the Hong Kong dollar was linked to the United States dollar.


  • Foreign-exchange market - A market that trades the currencies of different countries. The foreign exchange market is actually a series of different markets, each exchanging the currency of one nation for that of another nation.

Currency decision-making.

  • Strong/weak dollar

    • Strong means that the dollar is worth more of the foreign currency

    • Weak means it is worth less

  • Arbitrage - the activity of exploiting imbalances between two or more markets. Foreign money exchangers operate their entire businesses on this principle. They find tourists who need the convenience of a quick cash exchange. Tourists exchange cash for less than the market rate and then the money exchanger converts those foreign funds into the local currency at a higher rate. The difference between the two rates is the spread or profit.


Currency decision-making.

  • Distinguish between direct and indirect exchange-rate quotations.

    • Direct - A foreign exchange rate quoted as the domestic currency per unit of the foreign currency. In other words, it involves quoting in fixed units of foreign currency against variable amounts of the domestic currency.

    • Indirect - A foreign exchange rate quoted as the foreign currency per unit of the domestic currency. In an indirect quote, the foreign currency is a variable amount and the domestic currency is fixed at one unit.


  • Interpret exchange rates – how much foreign currency a dollar will buy

  • Identify factors that increase demand for currencies.

    • Strong economy for the countries with that currency

    • Weak economy for countries wanting that currency

  • Explain factors that cause a currency to lose value relative to other currencies.

    • Balance of trade and economic conditions of each country

  • Discuss how economic factors affect exchange rates.

    • Strong economies strengthen the currency and vice-versa

Currency decision-making.

  • Explain how market psychology can affect exchange rates.

    • Money is worth as much as people think it is

  • Describe how political conditions can influence exchange rates.

    • Politics is believed to directly affect the economy

  • Distinguish between free-floating and pegged currency.

    • Free floating changes with economic conditions, pegged is connected to the value of a specific currency

  • Describe factors that influence free-floating currency.

    • Economy, politics, balance of trade, etc.

Currency decision-making.

  • Identify institutions that utilize the foreign exchange market.

    • Governments, companies that trade goods in foreign markets (exporters), investors, speculators, tourists and banks.

  • Discuss types of financial instruments used in foreign exchange markets.

    • Currencies

  • Explain the advantages/disadvantages of a strong U.S. dollar.

    • (A) Can get good deals when traveling abroad, good exchange rate on imports

    • (D) Exported goods can see lost sales due to being too expensive

  • Describe the advantages/disadvantages of a weak U.S. dollar.

    • (A) Increased sales of exports

    • (D) Imported goods are more expensive

  • Explain the risks of speculating on the price of foreign currency.

    • Fluctuations can be hard to predict, government policy changes can greatly impact the exchange rates

5 187 5 188 culture and trade
5-187 5-188 Culture and Trade decision-making.

Describe Hofstede’s dimensions of national cultures (i.e., individualism vs. collectivism, power distance, uncertainty avoidance, masculinity vs. femininity).

  • Individualism vs. Collectivism: Is the culture based on the importance and freedom of the individual or the good of the society (not mutually exclusive). A society's position on this dimension is reflected in whether people’s self-image is defined in terms of “I” or “we.”

  • Power distance: the degree to which the less powerful members of a society accept and expect that power is distributed unequally. The fundamental issue here is how a society handles inequalities among people.


Culture and trade
Culture and Trade decision-making.

  • Uncertainty avoidance: the degree to which the members of a society feel uncomfortable with uncertainty and ambiguity. The fundamental issue here is how a society deals with the fact that the future can never be known: should we try to control the future or just let it happen?

  • Masculinity vs. femininity: The masculinity side of this dimension represents a preference in society for achievement, heroism, assertiveness and material reward for success. Society at large is more competitive. Its opposite, femininity, stands for a preference for cooperation, modesty, caring for the weak and quality of life. Society at large is more consensus-oriented.


Culture and trade1
Culture and Trade decision-making.

  • Explain why business subcultures shape the behaviors of businesspeople.

    • People adapt to what is expected of them if they wish to be successful

  • Explain how language impacts knowing when and how business will be conducted.

    • Clarity of communication

  • Explain how culture influences communication.

    • What is acceptable and expected

  • Discuss how the interrelationship of business law and religion impacts international business activities.

    • What culture is prevalent and set up the ethics of the county?

    • Theocracy?

    • Understanding of different ways or must it be done only one way?

Culture and trade2
Culture and Trade decision-making.

  • Identify ways to overcome issues with the crossover of business law and religion in international business activities.

    • Study your clients, learn about what is important and what is acceptable and expected

    • Carefully design ads, and even packaging to fit into the culture

  • Describe how corruption impacts international business activities.

    • Some cultures allow those with power to exercise it for their own benefit (bribes)

    • Not following the norms could hinder your business, but following the foreign norms could get you in trouble in America

Culture and trade3
Culture and Trade decision-making.

  • Explain how a country’s level of involvement impacts international trade.

    • What can the country and its citizens handle?

  • Discuss how culture can hamper international trade.

    • Cultures can clash in how they chose to interact. What is acceptable and expected in one might be criminal in the other.

    • Large and small mistakes can impact the future of commerce.

Culture and trade4
Culture and Trade decision-making.

  • Explain how culture can impact trade partner selection.

    • The culture affects what the individuals will find acceptable and pleasing

    • Fitting into the culture will improve the odds of doing business successfully

  • Describe how culture can impact negotiations in international trade.

    • Differing views can emphasize different parts of the negotiation process or the items being traded

Culture and trade5
Culture and Trade decision-making.

  • Discuss how culture can impact product delivery in international trade.

    • What value does the sending/receiving country place on speedy and efficient delivery?

    • Is rest as important as work? (Spain and the siesta)

    • What is good enough condition?

Culture and trade6
Culture and Trade decision-making.

  • Explain how positive/negative experiences with a culture can update one’s beliefs.

    • We all make judgments

  • Describe how culture can impact the selection of trade goals in international trade.

    • What is important in that culture affects what will be important in trade