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Тяжелые ядра в космосе – источник радиационной опасности вблизи  Земли и в межпланетном пространстве. Heavy Nuclei in Space – the Source of Danger in the Vicinity of the Earth and in the Interplanetary Space. Mikhail Panasyuk Moscow State University.

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slide1
Тяжелые ядра в космосе –

источник радиационной опасностивблизи  Земли и в межпланетном пространстве

Heavy Nuclei in Space –

the Source of Danger

in the Vicinity of the Earth and in the Interplanetary Space

Mikhail Panasyuk

Moscow State University

Space Weather Effects on Humans:in Space and on Earth

International Conference

Space Research InstituteMoscow, RussiaJune 4-8, 2012

slide2
The first “visualization” of HZE

GCR (Fe)

Apollo –11

N. Armstrong

B. Aldrin

M. Collins

slide3
HZE particles effects

Absorbed dose 0,5 Zv

Nuclei

Electrons

slide4
Одиночные сбои и поток ГКЛ

HZE particles impact on microchips

SEE

## SEE

Minimum of SA

Maximum of SA

Single Events Effects

Years

slide6
The Earth’s Radiation Belts

~7Rз

Внешний пояс

-р до ~ МэВ

- е до нескольких МэВ

Внутренний пояс

-р до сотен МэВ

- е до нескольких МэВ

slide7
Потоки электронов и протонов различных энергий в плоскости геомагнитного экватора. R - расстояние от центра Земли, выраженное в радиусах Земли. Стабильный пояс электронов с Ee > 20 МэВ выделен жирной линией
energy spectra of cosmic radiation
Solar wind (H)Energy spectra of cosmic radiation

10

Radiation belts

0

Solar

energetic

particles

lg I

Galactic and extragalactic

cosmic rays (H)

-10

1keV/n

1 MeVn

1 GeVn

1 TeVn

lg E (eV/nucl)

3

6

9

12

south atlantic anomaly
South Atlantic Anomaly

h=500km, 1970, B model JSFC12/66(1970)

Частицы

AE8max

Магнитное поле

h = 400 km

slide12
SEE in the SAA

Широта, град

ЮАА

Долгота, град

slide13
протоны,

>40 MэВ

W

solar cycle dependence
Solar cycle dependence.

Proton

flux

Atmospheric density

year

secular variations of geomagnetic field model igrf
SAA: magnetic field secular variationsSecular Variations of Geomagnetic Field (Model IGRF)

1980

1950

2010

  • Magnetic field become weaker ( at h = const)
  • SAA moving to the west
slide16
neutrons

Shielding

CR track

p

α

Mg

~ 25 µ

~ 5 µ

Sensitive region

Interection region

Semiconductor chip

slide17
Neutron Environment

Solar neutrons

GCR protons

Local

neutrons

Albedo

neutrons

neutron dose equivalent sv h
Neutron dose equivalent(μSv/h)

Neutron dose equivalent rate was estimated using the

energy spectrum with the ICRP-74 coefficient .

Neutron dose equivalent (Goka et al)

(From March 23 to July 7, All orbit)

slide21
Altitude dependence of SEE

1250-1350 км

650-750 км

2450-2550 км

Спутник APEX, эллиптическая орбита

slide23
Solar wind (H)

1010

Solar Energetic Particles

Поток частиц, отн.ед

100

Solar cosmic rays

Galactic cosmic rays

10-10

1кэВ/нукл

1 МэВ/нукл

1 ГэВ/ нукл

1 ТэВ/ нукл

lgE

(эВ/нукл)

3

6

9

12

hze abundance in sep
HZE abundance in SEP

Nymmik, 2012,private communication

hze abundance in sep1
HZE abundance in SEP

Nymmik, 2012,private communication

Abundance of HZE particles

on the tail of SEP’s events is unerestimated?

neutron dose equivalent sv h1
Neutron dose equivalent(μSv/h)

We have investigated the neutron dose equivalent inside

the ISS on the influence of solar flare.

Neutron dose equivalent

(For 24 hours from 12(UT) on April 15)

Animation\animation.htm

instead of conclusions
Instead of conclusions

PROBLEMS

(just a sketch)

problems
PROBLEMS

1. Limitation of knowledge to estimate the real risk

slide35
Роль фрагментов ядерных реакций p +Si
  • Продукты ядерного взаимодействия протонов КИ с материалом бортовой электроники генерируют с электронно-дырочные пары и дефекты, приводящие к сбою электроники
however
However…

Результаты испытаний HXRHPPC на ТЗЧ

Lintz et al, “ Single Event Effects Hardening andCharacterization of Honeywell’s RHPPC ProcessorIntegrated Circuit”

slide38
Rat’s expedition to Mars

Rat’s behavior is changing after 3 month’s

of HZE exposure !

slide39
Expedition to Mars

Do we need one way ticket?

problems1
PROBLEMS

2. Limitation of on ground facilities for modeling of space environment

how to minimize risk from hze
How to minimize risk from HZE?

Electronics

Onground space qualification tests (certification) with using of accelerator’s facilities – just a black hole for funds

What to do ?

- To combine design/manufacturing process with radiation testing

- To imply special soft/scheme/construction

decisions to minimize SEE

- Planning of missions

slide44
Planning of missions

Одиночные сбои в ЮАА

Spacecraft is a robot, but with elements a manual management by people

Широта, град

ЮАА

Долгота, град

how to minimize risk from hze1
How to minimize risk from HZE?

Humans

- To combine design/manufacturing process with radiation testing

- To imply special soft/scheme/construction

decisions to minimize SEE

- Planning of missions, new estimation of risks

how to minimize risk from hze2
How to minimize risk from HZE?

Humans

Planning of missions

Probably, we are on a way of developing temporal limitation for long-duration space missions on concept of new risk’s estimation

Time – the only real shield against HZE particles for human’s body in space

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