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  1. Just Like Us?

  2. Geographic Neighbors

  3. Trading Partners Who is that third one?

  4. Fighting Allies

  5. Former Colonies of Great Britain

  6. Constitution Guarantees Equality and Freedom for all Citizens

  7. Industrialized Nations Canada GDP: $43,400 U.S. GDP: $50,700

  8. English-Speaking Countries Official language of United States: none Official languages of Canada: English, French

  9. Large Land Area Canada #2 in area 3,855,103 sq. mi. U.S. #4 in area: 3,678,190 sq. mi. So, who’s #3?

  10. Rocky Mountains Both the U.S. and Canada have the Rocky Mountains. These mountains extend from New Mexico, through eastern Canada, and into Alaska.

  11. Great Lakes Canada and the U.S. border the Great Lakes. This border spans more than 750 miles from west to east. These vast inland freshwater seas provide water for consumption, transportation, power, recreation, etc. The Great Lakes are the largest surface freshwater system on the Earth. Only the polar ice caps contain more fresh water.

  12. Niagara Falls New York side Niagara Falls, also known as les Chutes du Niagara by French Canadians, are massively wide falls on the Niagara River that link the Canadian province of Ontario with the U.S. state of New York. The falls were formed some 10,000 years ago. Canadian Side

  13. Energy Resources and the Environment • Both countries aim to develop diverse energy resources while maintaining their commitment to the environment.

  14. Overweight Nations • Size of Citizens: • America is #1, the most obese country in the world! • 34% are obese • 68% are overweight • Canadais the 11th most obese country in the world. • 24% are obese • 55% are overweight • (National Center for Health Statistics, 2009)

  15. Fast Food Popular in Canada and U.S. • Fast food is popular for the citizens of both countries • Obesity rates have more than doubled in adults and children since the 1970s What’s PFK?

  16. Some things about Canada & the U.S. ARE Different!

  17. Different: Populations Canada: 35,300,000 36th largest population U.S: 316,200,000 3rd largest population

  18. Different: Climate Much of Canada’s land is not suitable for traditional inhabitation. Brrrrrrr………….

  19. Different: Population Density Canada: 8 per sq. mi U.S.: 85 per sq. mi.

  20. Moose, the polar bear, the black bear, the mountain lion, the mountain goat, the Arctic wolf, the raccoon, the lynx and the buffalo, are common sights • The birds of Canada: • loon  — the national bird of Canada and namesake of the loonie • The not-quite-so beloved Canada goose. • Snowy owl of Quebec • Puffin of Prince Edward Island Different Wildlife

  21. Different: Allegiance to the Queen • The Queen of England: • Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II • Queen Elizabeth II is Canada’s constitutional monarch, and acting through the Parliament-appointed Governor-General she retains symbolic oversight of the country. • Legislators, ministers, public services and members of the military and police all swear allegiance to the Queen. Elections are called and laws are enacted in The Queen’s name.

  22. Different: the Dollar Currency: Both countries use their version of the dollar; currently the US and Canadian dollars have an almost equal exchange rate Americans: $U.S. dollar. Canadians:call their $1 a “loonie” and their $2 a “toonie” –

  23. Different: Independence from Britain • Canadabecame a self-governing dominion in 1867, while retaining ties to the British crown and the Queen. • Canada’s independence: 1931 • Canada still part of the British Commonwealth. • U.S. independence: 1776 (that’s 155 years earlier!)

  24. Different: Electing the Head of Government • Americans have a President, elected by the public vote. • Our founding fathers wanted to create a system different than the British. • President Barack Obama can serve a second four year term, but then must leave office, according to law. • Canadians have a Prime Minister and a system similar to the British government. • Canadians elect members of Parliament, and these members choose the Prime Minister … different! • Members of the winning party choose the PM • PM Stephen Harper serves an unlimited term

  25. Different: Crime Rates Crime: Americans have the 68th highest crime rate per capita in the world. Canadianslove American crime shows and have the 87th highest crime rate in the world. Both countries allow citizens to carry guns, but there are fewer guns in Canada: the U.S. has almost 3 times more guns per capita than Canada.

  26. Different: National Debt Why does the US owe so much more than Canada ($16 trillion vs. $1 trillion)? Unfair comparison because the U.S. economy is ~ 10 times larger than Canada’s economy. Much fairer comparison to compare the "per capita" (per person) amount owed. Each Canadian currently owes approximately $17,706.93- their share of Canada’s national debt. Each American currently owes approximately $53,341.16 - their share of the US national debt.

  27. Different: Gross Domestic Product U.S. GDP Canada GDP 16,244,600,000,000 1,779,634,707,766

  28. Different: Universal Health Care • Today, Canada is characterized by its socially democratic programs such as universal health care, the Canada Pension Plan, and Canada Student Loans. • In 2006 The Economist ranked Canada the third most democratic nationin its Democracy Index, ahead of all other countries in North and South America. • Canada also aims to develop its diverse energy resources while maintaining its commitment to the environment.

  29. Different: Quebec May Vote to Become Independent • Canada faces the political challenges of responding to the particular concerns of predominantly French-speaking Quebec. Quebec has voted twice now to secede from Canada – the last vote was very close!

  30. Canada vs. U.S. • If Canada were your home instead of The would... • experience 28% less of a class divide • spend 45% less money on health care • have18% less chance of dying in infancy • have9% more chance at being employed • have 4% more free time • live 3 years longer • BUT you would: • consume 7% more oil • use 27% more electricity • make 17% less money • have 26% less babies

  31. Canada in a Nutshell • 36th most populous country in the world, with 35 million people. • 2ndlargest country by area with 3,855,103 square miles. • Land of vast distances (6 time zones) and rich natural resources, • 10 Provinces and 3 Territories • National Capital is Ottawa • Became a self-governing dominion in 1867, retaining ties to the British crown. • Economically and technologically the nation has developed in parallel with U.S.

  32. Canada’s History • First inhabited approximately 16,000 years ago by aboriginal peoples. • In the late 1400s the British and French explored and settled along the eastern coast. • The 19th century saw a rapid influx of European immigrants.

  33. Canada’s History • The beginning of the 20th century saw Canada's early involvement in WorldWarI due to British control of its foreign affairs. • In 1919 Canada independently joined the League of Nations, taking control of its own foreign policy. • Canada declared war on Germany during World War II three days after Britain, with the first Canadian Army units arriving in Britain in late 1939.

  34. Canada and the US Today • Relations between Canada and the United States have spanned more than two centuries. This includes: • Shared British cultural heritage, • Warfare during the 1770s and 1812, and the • One of the most stable and mutually-beneficial international relationships in the modern world. • Each is the other's chief economic partner and • Tourism and migration between the two nations has increased rapport. • Military collaboration began during WWII and continued throughout the Cold War. A

  35. World’s Longest Undefended Border • Canada and the United States are currently the world's largest trading partners, share the world’s longest undefended border, and are allies within the defense sphere. • A high volume of trade and migration between the U.S. and Canada has generated closer ties, especially after the signing of the Canada-US Free Trade Agreement in 1988.

  36. Trading Partners • Recent difficulties: • Trade disputes, • Environmental concerns • Canadian concern for the future of oil exports • Issues of illegal immigration and the threat of terrorism. • Nevertheless, trade between the two countries has continued to expand for the last two hundred years • Especially following the signing of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) in 1994 which has since further merged the two economies.

  37. Canada & the US Allies, Trade Partners Neighbors Democracies Leaders of the free world!

  38. Chapter 18 Canada Test – Extra Notes • NAFTA: North American Free Trade Agreement • Helps trade of goods flow freely between U.S., Canada, & Mexico. • Some Canadians don’t support NAFTA: • They think it makes Canada dependent on the U.S. for trade • They believe it takes jobs away from Canadians and Americans, gives these jobs to Mexican workers (cheap labor, no unions, pensions…)

  39. Canada Notes (cont’d.) • Quebec has tried twice to secede from Canada, calling a vote to form an independent Quebec; the last vote (1995) was very close! • Pros: • Unite French-speaking population • Keeps French culture strong • Cons: • Divides the English-speakers that live in Quebec • Quebec is a powerful economic center; secession would hurt Canada’s economy • As a new nation, Quebec could struggle to get its economy and government working

  40. Canada Notes (cont‘d) • Canada: British-style Parliamentary Democracy • Voters elect members of Parliament • Members of Parliament choose the head of government, Prime Minister • Makes Parliament a friendlier place for the leader, since they elected him/her • Each time the majority of Parliament swings to another political party, the Prime Minister changes • Prime Minister: Stephen Harper

  41. Canada Notes (cont’d.) • Canada’s Government exercises more power than U.S. in: • PowerCompanies: Regulates power companies in order to provide service to the many rural areas of Canada • Health Care: Canada’s government provides universal health care • U.S. Government-controlled Health Care -- For or Against? • For: • U.S. government provides a certain level of health care at an affordable rate • Everyone would have health care • Against: • Little choice of doctors • Doctors would make less money • Could lead to long waits for operations and other medical procedures

  42. Canada Terms: • Colony: Overseas territory with economic ties to parent country • Free Market Economy: (Canada and U.S.) Economy driven by forces including competition, supply and demand • Glaciers: Over thousands of years, glaciers cut and scraped a large low basin in Canada; there are many lakes and rivers here • Newsprint: World’s leading producer of this paper used in newspaper production, using trees from British Columbia • Ontario: Province with the most people and greatest wealth • Service Industry: Business that provides something other than goods • Nunavut: Canada’s newest territory • Created by Canada’s government in 1999 for the Inuit people • (60% of the Inuit are under the age of 25 – that is high!)

  43. Canada Notes (Cont’d.) • Hudson Bay: Largest bay in Canada • Baffin Island: Largest island in Canada (Nunavut) – 5th largest island in the world! • Canada’s size: it extends from near the Equator all the way into the Arctic Circle – 2nd largest country in the world • Canada’s ethnic diversity: • Vikings, French and British settlers • Proximity to Asia • Native peoples: Native Americans, Inuit • Canada has opened its doors to immigrants and has welcomed refugees

  44. Member of the Commonwealth • Canada is member of Commonwealth of Great Britain: • Queen Elizabeth II is ceremonial head of state for Canada • No real power – ceremonial leader • Governor General of Canada – Queen’s representative in Canada