Download
clockless chips n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Clockless Chips PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Clockless Chips

Clockless Chips

302 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

Clockless Chips

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Date: October 26, 2005. Clockless Chips Presented by: K. Subrahmanya Sreshti. (05IT6004) School of Information Technology Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

  2. Presentation flow: • Introduction. • Problems with synchronous circuits. • Clockless / Asynchronous circuits. • How clockless chips work? • Simplicity in design. • Applications. • Applications (technical perspective). • Challenges. Presentation on Clockless Chips

  3. Introduction. • Struggle for the improvement in the microprocessor’s performance/functioning. • Pipelining • (Simultaneous) Multi-threading • Clockless / Asynchronous logic }Synchronous Presentation on Clockless Chips

  4. Problems with Synchronous Approach • Distributing the clock globally. • Wastage of energy. • Traverse the chip’s longest wires in one clock cycle. • Order of arrival of the signals is unimportant. • Clocks themselves consume lot of energy (~30%). Presentation on Clockless Chips

  5. Synchronous circuit • Longest path determines the minimum clock period. • Dissipation of energy for each clock cycle. • EMI is more in synchronous elements. Presentation on Clockless Chips

  6. Clockless chips (Asynchronous logic circuits) • Colckless chips/Asynchronous/self-timed circuits. • Functions away from the clock. • Different parts work at different speeds. • Hand-off the result immediately. Presentation on Clockless Chips

  7. Clock time cycle vs. clockless time cycle Courtesy: Fulcrum Microsystems. Presentation on Clockless Chips

  8. Courtesy: Computers without clocks – Ivan E Sutherland and Jo Ebergen Presentation on Clockless Chips

  9. How do they work? • No pure asynchronous chips are available. • Uses handshake signals for the data exchange. • Data moves only when required, not always. • Minimizes power consumption. • Less EMI  less noise  more applications. • Stream data applications. Presentation on Clockless Chips

  10. Simple and efficient design • No centralized clock required. • Standardized components can be used. Presentation on Clockless Chips

  11. Some features • Integrated pipelining mode. • Domino logic. • Delay – insensitive. • Two different implementation details • Dual rail. • Bundled data. Presentation on Clockless Chips

  12. Advantages • Works at its average speed. • Low power consumption. • Twice life-time. • Less heat generated.  Good to mobile devices. • Less EMI  less noise  more applications. • Smart cards (due to asynchronous nature). Presentation on Clockless Chips

  13. Advantages (technical look) • Asynchronous for higher performance: • Data-dependent delays. • All carry bits need to be computed. Presentation on Clockless Chips

  14. Advantages (technical look)… • Asynchronous for low power: • Consumes power only when and where active. • Rest of the time returns to a non-dissipating state, until next activation. • Illustrated through frequency divider Presentation on Clockless Chips

  15. Advantages (technical look)… • Asynchronous for low power: • Almost fixed power dissipation is achieved. • Many applications such as: • Infrared communication receiver. • Filter bank for digital hearing. • In pagers. • Double battery life. Presentation on Clockless Chips

  16. Advantages (technical look)… • Asynchronous for low noise and low emission: • Digital sub-circuits • Generates voltage noise (on power lines) • Induces current on silicon substrate. • Emits electromagnetic radiation at its clock frequency or its harmonics. Presentation on Clockless Chips

  17. Advantages (technical look)… • Heterogeneous Timing: • Gate delays. • Interconnection delays. • Heterogeneous systems would increase the delays in the circuits. Presentation on Clockless Chips

  18. Challenges • Interfacing between synchronous and asynchronous • Many devices available now are synchronous in nature. • Special circuits are needed to align them. • Lack of expertise. • Lack of tools. • Engineers are not trained in these fields. • Academically, no courses available. Presentation on Clockless Chips

  19. References • Scanning the Technology: Applications of Asynchronous Circuits – C. H. (Kees) van Berkel, Mark B. Josephs, and Steven M. Nowick • Computers without clocks – Ivan E Sutherland and Jo Ebergen. • http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel5/2/30617/01413111.pdf(October 2001) • http://csdl2.computer.org/comp/mags/dt/2003/06/d6005.pdf • http://www1.cs.columbia.edu/async/misc/technologyreview_oct_01_2001.html • http://www.technologyreview.com/articles/01/10/tristram1001.asp • http://www1.cs.columbia.edu/async/misc/economist/Economist_com.htm Presentation on Clockless Chips

  20. Thank you Presentation on Clockless Chips