eti 305 literary translation i n.
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ETI 305--Literary Translation I. Style. Style. from L. stilus "stake, instrument for writing, manner of writing, mode of expression" a distinctive manner of expression

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  • from L. stilus "stake, instrument for writing, manner of writing, mode of expression"
  • a distinctive manner of expression
  • result of the choices the writer makes in syntactical structures, diction (choice of words) , rhythm, imagery, and figures of thought/speech
  • the manner of expression of a particular writer, produced by choice of words, grammatical structures, use of literary devices, and all the possible parts of language use
  • the mode of expressing thought in writing or speaking by selecting and arranging words
    • e.g. to write in the style of Faulkner; a pompous, flowery, ornate, plain, and emotive or pedantic style
  • Scholarly writing usually avoids figures of speech and prefers precise descriptions to colloquial terms.
  • News reporting requires smaller words, even if colloquial, and shorter sentences, to be easy to read by a general audience.
  • Fiction writing, is designed to entertain and arouse the reader, and is improved by the careful use of figures of speech.
literary style
Literary Style
  • The components of style :
    • point of view,
    • choice of narrator,
    • fiction-writing mode,
    • person and tense,
    • grammar,
    • punctuation,
    • word usage,
    • sentence length and structure,
    • paragraph length and structure,
    • tone,
    • imagery,
    • chapter usage, and title selection.
stylistic choices
Stylistic choices
  • Sentence form
    • The loose sentence: begins with the main point (an independent clause), followed by one or more subordinate clauses.

The cat sat on the mat, purring softly, having licked his paws.

    • The periodic sentence: the main point is placed in the middle or at the end of the sentence.

Under these circumstances, we may have to cancel the contract.

    • The balanced sentence: is characterized by parallel structure: two or more parts of the sentence have the same form, emphasizing similarities or differences.
stylistic choices1
Stylistic choices
  • Diction
    • Abstract-concrete: how much of the diction is physical?
    • General-specific: to what degree is the diction precise, to what degree is it vague?
    • Denotation-connotation
    • Literal-metaphorical
  • Other attributes of diction include:
    • Density
    • Length
stylistic choices2
Stylistic choices
  • Punctuation and spelling

Since punctuation is standardized,is it really a factor in a writer's style?

  • Unusual changes to spelling and grammar (possibly to represent a regional or ethnic dialect in which such changes are common)
style in fiction
Style in fiction
  • The analysis of style involves

“the examination of a writer’s choice of words,

his figures of speech,

the devices (rhetorical and otherwise),

the shape of his sentences,

the shape of his paragraphs

—indeed, of every conceivable aspect of his language and the way in which he uses it”

(Cuddon, 1999)

stylistic analysis
Stylistic analysis
  • Stylistic analysis in linguistics refers to the identification of patterns of usage in speech and writing.
  • Stylistic analysis in literary studies is usually made for the purpose of commenting on quality and meaning in a text.
    • Stylistic analysis is a normal part of literary studies, practiced as a part of understanding the possible meanings in a text.
road sign which reads no left turn
Road sign which reads NO LEFT TURN
  • The statement is a command.
  • It is written in the imperative mode.
  • The statement lacks a subject and a verb.
  • These are implied [THERE IS].
  • The statement is unpunctuated.
  • Capitals have been used for emphasis.
  • Simple vocabulary to suit wide audience.
  • Extreme compression for rapid comprehension.
  • Form entirely suited to audience and function.
o pening lines of shakespeare s richard iii
Opening lines of Shakespeare's Richard III

“Now is the winter of our discontentMade glorious summer by this sun of York;”

  • the play is written in poetic blank verse (unrhymed, iambic pentameter)
  • the first line is built on a metaphor
  • the condition of England is described in terms of the season 'winter'
  • the term 'our' is a form of the royal 'we'
  • the seasonal metaphor is extended into the second line ...

... where better conditions become 'summer'

  • the metaphor is extended even further by the term 'sun'
  • it is the sun which appears, 'causing' the summer
  • but 'sun' is here also a pun - on the term 'son'...
  • ... which refers to the son of the King
  • 'York' is a metonymic reference to the Duke of York
shooting an elephant by george orwell
“Shooting an Elephant” by George Orwell

In Moulmein, in lower Burma, I was hated by large numbers of people – the only time in my life that I have been important enough for this to happen to me. I was sub-divisional police officer of the town, and in an aimless, petty kind of way anti-European feeling was very bitter. No one had the guts to raise a riot, but if a European woman went through the bazaars alone somebody would probably spit betel juice over her dress. As a police officer I was an obvious target and was baited whenever it seemed safe to do so. When a nimble Burman tripped me up on the football field and the referee (another Burman) looked the other way, the crowd yelled with hideous laughter. This happened more than once. In the end the sneering yellow faces of young men that met me everywhere, the insults hooted after me when I was at a safe distance, got badly on my nerves. The young Buddhist priests were the worst of all. There were several thousands of them in the town and none of them seemed to have anything to do except stand on street corners and jeer at Europeans.