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Plant Physiology. Travis DeLozier. Plant Physiology. The study of how the many organs function and the complex chemical processes. Photosynthesis. Photosynthesis is the important process of manufacturing of food for a plant to carry on life processes of life, growth and reproduction

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plant physiology

Plant Physiology

Travis DeLozier

plant physiology1
Plant Physiology
  • The study of how the many organs function and the complex chemical processes
photosynthesis
Photosynthesis
  • Photosynthesis is the important process of manufacturing of food for a plant to carry on life processes of life, growth and reproduction
  • It is the conversion of carbon dioxide and water in the presence of light and chlorophyll into glucose, oxygen and water
photosynthesis1
Photosynthesis
  • Chlorophyll, or the green material inside the leaves and stems, are essential as a catalyst in the photosynthesis process
  • It is contained in small, membrane-bound bodies called chloroplasts which are located in the mesophyll of the leaf
  • Chloroplasts are the actual location of the conversion of solar energy (sunlight) into store energy or simple sugars called glucose
respiration
Respiration
  • A process in which energy and carbon dioxide are released due to digestion or the breakdown of plant tissues during periods of darkness
  • All living cells carry on the process of respiration
  • Occurs day and night
  • Uses the sugars and starches produced by photosynthesis, and convert them into energy for the plant
photosynthesis transpiration
Photosynthesis

Food is produced

Energy is stored

Occurs in cells that contain chloroplasts

Oxygen is released

Water is used

Carbon dioxide is used

Occurs in sunlight

Respiration

Food is used for plant energy

Energy is released

Occurs in all cells

Oxygen is used

Water is produced

Carbon dioxide is produced

Occurs in dark and light

Photosynthesis/Transpiration
transpiration
Transpiration
  • Transpiration is the process by which a plant gives up water vapor to the atmosphere
  • Most plants transpire about 90% of the water that enters through the roots
  • Transpiration takes place primarily through the stoma
  • As humidity transpiration , vice versa.
  • air movement the rate of transpiration
  • As temp. transpiration
water plant growth
Water – Plant Growth
  • Cools the plant
  • Moves sugars and plant chemicals
  • Transporting minerals through the plant that it has dissolved in the soil making it possible to be transported
  • Maintaining turgor pressure
air plant growth
Air – Plant Growth
  • The atmosphere of air that surround the plant structure above ground must contain both carbon dioxide (photosynthesis) and oxygen (respiration)
  • Plants grown in a greenhouse may require a carbon dioxide generator
soil plant growth
Soil – Plant Growth
  • Is a catalyst in the life processes of germination, growth, production, reproduction, and death of a plant.
  • Roots penetrate and absorb water and nutrients that are adhered to soil particles
  • Different soil textures will have different capacities for holding water and nutrients
  • During the growth of the root system in the soil, it also serves to anchor the part of the plant that is above ground
  • Root hairs must have space to move through the soil for growth and absorption of water and nutrients
osmosis
Osmosis
  • A process whereby the flow of a fluid through a semipermeable membrane separating two solutions permits the passage of a solvent but not the dissolved substance
  • The semipermeable membrane is a structure that permits a solution to move through it in a direction controlled by the concentration of solutions
  • The epidermis of a root hair is semipermeable
  • Once water and nutrients are inside the root they can travel through the plant via the xylem
plant nutrition
Plant Nutrition
  • Plant nutrition- availability and type of basic chemical elements in the plant
  • Plant fertilization- management practice of adding nutrients to the soil or leaves for increased availability to the plant
16 essential plant nutrients
16 Essential Plant Nutrients
  • Nutrients obtained from the atmosphere- Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen
  • Macronutrients are used in relatively large amounts and obtained from the soil – Nitrogen (N), Phosphorous (P), Potassium (K), Calcium (Ca), Magnesium (Mg), Sulfur (S)
  • Micronutrients (trace elements) are used in small amounts and also obtained from the soil – Boron (B), Copper (Cu), Chlorine (Cl), Iron (Fe), Manganese (Mn), Molybdenum (Mo), Zinc (Zn)
remembering the 16 plant nutrients
Remembering The 16 Plant Nutrients
  • Learn the chemical symbols
  • “C Hopkin’s café, mighty good.”
plant nutrition ions
Plant Nutrition (Ions)
  • Plant nutrients are absorbed from the soil-water solution that surrounds the root hairs of the plant. 98% absorbed in solution – 2% extracted directly from soil particle
  • Most nutrients are absorbed as charged ions
  • Ion – Atom that has an electrical charge
  • Anion – Negatively charged ion
  • Cation- Positively charged ion
  • Electrical charges in the soil are paired so that the overall effect in the soil is not changed
plant nutrition ions1
Plant Nutrition (Ions)
  • Ions compete and interact with each other according to their relative charges
  • Opposite charges attract each other, but ions with similar charges compete for chemical reactions and interactions in the soil-water environment
  • Some ions are more active than others and might be able to compete better in the soil
soil acidity and alkalinity
Soil Acidity and Alkalinity
  • The chemistry of plant elements in the soil can be affected by pH
  • Soil pH- the measurement of acidity (sourness) and alkalinity (sweetness)
  • If soil pH is acid some micronutrients become too soluble and occur in concentrations high enough to harm the plant
  • If soil pH is very high in the alkaline range many of the nutrients can be precipitated out (when a solid is dropped out of solution) and not available to the plant
soil testing
Soil Testing
  • Soil nutrient deficiencies can be determined by performing a soil test

Not Recommended for Accurate Results

soil acidity and alkalinity1
Soil Acidity and Alkalinity
  • Soil pH can be corrected by adding lime to raise it or gypsum or sulfur to lower it.
nutrient deficiencies
Nutrient Deficiencies
  • A deficiency is when there is a shortage of a nutrient available for the plant to uptake.
  • These may be replaced by fertilizing
nitrogen deficiency
Nitrogen Deficiency
  • Because it exists in nature as a gas, it is easily leached .
  • Nitrogen is responsible fro the vegetative growth of the plant and its dark green color
  • Symptoms are reduced growth and yellowing of leaves (chlorosis)
phosphorous deficiency
Phosphorous Deficiency
  • It is present as a rock in nature and not easily leached out of the soil
  • Important in the growth of seedlings and young plants and helping develop good root systems
  • Symptoms include reduced growth, poor root system, and reduced flowering. Thins stems and browning or purpling of foilage
potassium deficiency
Potassium Deficiency
  • Mined as a rock and made into fertilizer, but it can be leached from the soil
  • If too much potassium is present, it can cause a N deficiency
  • Symptoms include reduced growth, brown leaf edges, dead spots in the leaf, and plants that wilt easily
food storage
Food Storage
  • When a plant makes it food through photosynthesis, it often manufactures more than it needs and stores the excess in roots, stems, seeds, or fruits.
  • This excess food is used during respiration or harvested for consumption by humans and animals
food storage1
Food Storage
  • The common root that is used to store food is the taproot - (carrots,radishes,turnips, and sugar beets)
  • Specialized stems store food as well - (tuber – potato), Corms, Bulbs, and Rhizomes
  • As the ovule of a plant matures, it stores food for the young embryo to start its growth when it germinates. Both animals and humans utilize seeds as major food sources