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Foreign Aid and LDC Administration. Comparative and Multilateral Aid: The Intersection of Policy, Projects and Implementation . Five Page Proposal/Overveiw. Introduction and Project Statement Literature Review Major Hypotheses Methodology Due: November 18, 2009.

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foreign aid and ldc administration

Foreign Aid and LDC Administration

Comparative and Multilateral Aid:

The Intersection of Policy, Projects and Implementation

five page proposal overveiw
Five Page Proposal/Overveiw
  • Introduction and Project Statement
  • Literature Review
  • Major Hypotheses
  • Methodology

Due: November 18, 2009

quote
Quote:
  • ‘AID!’ the farmer cried. Look at you.... He pointed, sweeping his finger from one charred remembrance of a home to another. ‘Here is your American AID!’ The farmer spat on the ground and walked away.[i]
  • [i] Neil Sheehan, A Bright Shining Lie: John Paul Vann and America in Vietnam (New York: Random House, 1988), p. 562.
cords origins of project mode in bilateral and multilateral activities
CORDS: Origins of Project Mode in Bilateral and Multilateral Activities

In May 1967 an organization known as CORDS—Civil Operations and Revolutionary Development Support—was formed to coordinate the U.S. civil and military pacification programs. A unique hybrid civil-military structure directly under general William C. Westmoreland, the COMUSMACV, CORDS was headed by a civilian, Ambassador Robert W. Komer, who was appointed as Westmoreland’s deputy.

Current Version: COINS- Counter-Insurgency Strategy, the “Three D’s” or Whole of Government Approach to Foreign aid.

domestic management systems and international influences
Domestic Management Systems and International Influences
  • Historical periods of budgetary and fiscal management:
  • 1975-1981: Basic Needs: CONDUCIVE TO PROJECTIZATION
  • 1981-1990: Structural Adjustment
  • After 1991:
      • Collapse of the Soviet Union
      • “Clash of civilizations”
  • September 11, 2001
review second world as new debtors structural adjustment
Review: Second World as New Debtors- Structural Adjustment
  • Chad vs. Russia
    • Transitional States
    • Rise of Asia and blocks
    • Crisis in Asia and the return to debt management
    • Debt Crisis in U.S. and Europe: Different Rules
    • Projects Supplement Conditionality
foreign aid and technical assistance factors to consider
Foreign Aid and Technical Assistance: Factors to Consider
  • The utility of the rational actor model for foreign aid
  • Impact of culture and values on Foreign Aid
  • Impact of Intellectual systems and ideologies influences and beliefs
  • Impact of Standard Operating Procedures
  • The Impact of the Project Model on the Foreign Aid Process
the context of project management debates
The Context of Project Management: Debates
  • The Importance of the Market The end of the Command Economy? The concepts of market and productivity (1989)
    • International systemic hegemony and competition within international markets
    • Complementarity problem and origins of capital
    • 1999-2009 Fear of Market failure?
the debate
The Debate
  • The World Economic Regime
    • World Market: Only game in Town?
    • Questions of conflict: pluralist vs. hegemonic models in the post-war world
    • Economic change vs. political development
      • Governance (democracy) a pre-requisite?
    • Impact of world economy on Domestic Economies
    • Projects focus on Entrepreneurialism and credit (micro)
development of underdevelopment
Development of Underdevelopment

Reminder-

Changing Terms

  • Non-Western World
  • Developing areas or nations
  • Third World
  • Southern Tier States
  • LDCs
  • UDCs
  • Transitional States?
  • Immerging Markets
foreign aid vs technical assistance the project mode
Foreign Aid vs. Technical Assistance: The Project Mode
  • Economic Projects: Current bias to Security and international trade
  • Democracy and Governance Projects and Nation Building
  • Sectoral Projects: Back to the future- Get the LDC economy back to the 1950s (Agriculture, Health Food, Education)
  • Dependent development/Emerging Markets- Is it dependent and is it development?
the project mode
The Project Mode
  • Limited Time
  • Limited Tasks
  • Limited Funding
foreign aid change of focus
Foreign Aid: Change of Focus

THE PROJECT CYCLE:

THE PROCESS

mini discussion

Mini-Discussion

What will you be doing two years from now?

monday morning 8 15
Monday Morning 8:15

1. Get a cup of coffee (If you drink it)

  • Start your computer
  • Check your e-mail
  • What then?
the u s foreign aid process development assistance programs daps
The U.S. Foreign Aid Process: Development Assistance Programs (DAPs)

Planning

Budgeting

Ongoing

Projects

Office of

Management

And Budget

(OMB)

Design Approval

Legis-

lation

Foreign

Policy

Implementation

Evaluation

LDC

Needs

Reporting

Budget

Submissions

Congressional

Presentation

(CP)

Appropriation

Operational

Year Budget

(OYB)

Host

Country

Agency Policy

Global Sector Strategies

Regional Strategies

Research Strategy

Management Objectives

Project

Identification

Document

(PID)

Project

Review

Paper

(PRP)

Project

Paper

(PP)

Pre-

Implementa-

tion

Implementa-

tion

Evaluation

Country

Program

Strategy

(DAPI)

Field of

Concentration

Strategy

(DAPII)

Project Reporting

Project Performance

Tracking (PPT);

Financial Reporting

Ex-Post

Facto

Evaluation

Prior

Evaluation

Financial MANAGEMENT

Programming INFORMATION Management Reports

Implementation SYSTEM External Needs

Program Support Data Bank (CPDB, PAIS, DIS, ESDB)

Personnel Administration Support Database for Future Decisions, Policy

Lessons Learned

Evaluation Criteria

blueprint approach to development planning
Blueprint Approach to Development Planning

Pilot Project

Researchers

Tested Models

Planner

Project

Blueprints

Actual Change

Versus

Targeted Change

Administrators

Evaluation

Researchers

Actions

Before-After

Surveys

Target

Population

the project cycle
The Project Cycle
  • Analysis--collection of:
    • Social Analysis targeted groups: women, minorities, indigenous peoples
    • Economic Analysis--Cost Benefit
    • Institutional Analysis
      • Sustainability
      • Organizational Requirements
      • Recurrent Cost Implications
      • Human Skills Needed
      • Social Acceptance
the project cycle29

1. Design

Project

Objectives

Achieved

3. Evaluation

2. Execution

The Project Cycle

Source: Project Management System, Practical Concepts, Inc., Washington, DC 1979.

the project cycle30
The Project Cycle
  • Design
    • Identifying nature of problem and possible solutions--specific needs and desired changes
  • Appraisal
    • (Mandatory) data needed to prepare project plan
the project cycle31
The Project Cycle
  • Analysis--collection of:
    • Prediction
    • Selection of preferred alternatives
the project cycle the logical framework logframe
The Project Cycle The Logical Framework: (LOGFRAME)
  • Analysis--collection of Information:
      • If-then conditions
      • AID moved away from logframe but not the Logical Model
      • Was replaced by a system based on identifying Strategic Objectives, Intermediate Results, Measurable Indicators, etc.
      • That system was recently "de-emphasized.“
      • AID mission requests for funds were tied to promises of specific results

-Baseline Analysis

-Benchmarks

      • Results Framework system now is "under review."
project management system provides tools to support all stages of the project cycle
Project Management System Provides Tools to Support all Stages of the Project Cycle

Logical Framework

Performance Networks

1. Design

Networks display performance plans over time

Project

Objectives

Achieved

3. Evaluation

2. Execution

Evaluation System

Reporting System

ACHIEVEMENT

EXCEPTION

Evaluations assess performance against plans and analyze causal linkages

Progress indicators and formats for communicating project information

Practical Concepts, Incorporated

preparation of documents donor usaid a paper mill
Country Strategy Paper (DAP)

Concept Paper (Sector:

Country Context Paper

Technical Proposal

Project Identification Document (PID)

Project Paper (PP)

Program Agreement

Preparation of Documents: Donor – USAID-A Paper Mill
implementation documents

Program Agreement

(Donor to Country)

PP (USAID)

(PP = Project Paper)

Technical Proposal

(Contractor to Donor)

Country Context Paper

(Contractor to Country)

Implementation Documents
the project cycle38
The Project Cycle
  • Implementation
    • Carrying out actions planned
    • Personnel: local (and foreign)
    • Physical and organizational Needs
    • Budget
the project cycle40
The Project Cycle
  • Monitoring and Evaluation:
  • Linked to End of Contract and Verification of Objective indicators
      • Understanding what has happened and assessing changes and quality of change
      • Issue: sustainability regarding follow-on within the country and replicability from one country to another
monitoring and evaluation
Monitoring and Evaluation
  • Nature of Data:
    • Interview vs. survey
    • Impact vs. Delivery
    • Seat of the pants observation
      • "the old quick and dirty"
the problem of measuring project goals
The problem of Measuring Project Goals:
  • Goals are to be limited and bounded
  • Specific activities are to be clearly defined and achieved
  • Short run success leads to successful evaluation
  • Short-term loop is five years
  • Implementation may not be Success
monitoring and evaluation43
Monitoring and Evaluation
  • Nature of Data- Judgment: Evaluation vs. Assessment
      • Two views:
        • a. Learn from experience
        • b. Judge performance
      • Problem: judgment requires clear goals, in contradiction with learning
      • Problem: power of the expert
monitoring and evaluation45
Monitoring and Evaluation
  • Nature of Data
    • Evaluation is a donor requirement
      • External activity
      • Targets blueprint activity (CPA)
      • Critical path analysis (Time based action)
      • PERT chart (Project Evaluation Review Technique) very technical, programmed
      • Evaluation often the need for more action
monitoring and evaluation46
Monitoring and Evaluation
  • Nature of Data:
    • Evaluation as an end product:
      • Separate from implementation
      • Action pre-determined in design prior to evaluation
    • Separates evaluation from the on-going activity
monitoring and evaluation48
Monitoring and Evaluation
  • Issues
    • Problem with Evaluation concept
      • Implementation suggests a finished product
      • Bureaucratic action is ongoing
      • Part of larger system with ambiguous boundaries
    • Assessment
      • Ongoing, part of implementation process
end of project status eops
End of Project Status (EOPS)
  • Are of great importance and are primary target of project efforts and discussion
  • Projects are usually very complex
    • It is common to find that no single indicator is sufficient to describe the project achievement completely
end of project status eops50
End of Project Status (EOPS)
  • In determining EOPS we apply following principle:
    • If all EOPS conditions are satisfied, then there would be no credible alternative explanation
      • Except the purpose of the project (and the contract) has been achieved
    • Good project design will include the conditions that demonstrate successful achievement of the Project Purpose
end of project status eops51
End of Project Status (EOPS)
  • Example
    • PROJECT PURPOSE IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN OIL FIELD:
      • Export oil
    • EOPS
      • 50,000 Barrels of crude/day transferred to tankers at nearest port;
      • Quality of crude produced is competitive with that currently sold on world market. To verify, one needs a) the purity of oil, b) the world price, c) price sold, d) amount sold
m e during project execution

RESULTS

SPECIAL

ALERT

M&E During Project Execution

M & E Plan

PHYSICAL EXECUTIONPLANS (PEP)

LOGFRAMES

Design

FINANCIAL EXECUTIONPLANS (FEP)

Purpose

Evaluation

Execution

MONITORING & EVALUATION

REPORTS

PERIODIC & MID-TERM EVALUATIONS

the logical framework

NARRATIVE

SUMMARY

MEANS OF

VERIFICATION

INDICATORS

ASSUMPTIONS

GOAL

PURPOSE

OUTPUTS

INPUTS

The Logical Framework
example of project objectives
Example of Project Objectives
  • GOAL
    • Illnesses caused by impure drinking water reduced.
  • PURPOSE
    • Hygienic practices adopted by the rural population.
  • OUTPUTS
    • Clean water provided to 60% of villages in Northwest Region.
    • Health workers trained.
  • ACTIVITIES [or Inputs] Measured in Money
example of project objectives56
Example of Project Objectives
  • ACTIVITIES
    • 1.1. Choose sites for wells.
    • 1.2. Organize village workers
    • 2.1. Develop curriculum.
    • 2.2. Recruit health workers.
    • 2.3. Conduct training.
the logical framework57

NARRATIVE

SUMMARY

MEANS OF

VERIFICATION

INDICATORS

ASSUMPTIONS

GOAL

PURPOSE

OUTPUTS

INPUTS

The Logical Framework
horizontal logic of the logframe

NARRATIVE

SUMMARY

MEANS OF

VERIFICATION

INDICATORS

ASSUMPTIONS

GOAL

PURPOSE

COMPONENTS

ACTIVITIES

Horizontal Logic of the Logframe
the means of verification
The Means of Verification

Objectives

Observable

Verifiable

Indicators

Means of Verification (MOV)

Hierarchy of Objectives

Indicators

Sources of information

Method for data collection

Agency responsible for data collection, analysis, and dissemination (information producer)

Method for analysis of data

Frequency

Application (expected uses)

Reporting format (letter, written report, oral presentation, etc.)

Circulation (expected information users)

physical execution plan
Physical Execution Plan

Component/Activities/Tasks

Time

Product

Responsibility

1. Component

a. Activity

b. Activity

c. Activity

2. Component

a.

b.

c...

7 units

3 units

ConstructionUnit

TechnicalSupport Unit

next week
Next Week

Foreign aid

  • Dealing with Donors
  • Coping with Clients
tamryn klitgaard sri sri kristen klitgaard and president robert klitgaard claremont graduate school
Tamryn Klitgaard, Sri Sri, Kristen Klitgaard, and President Robert Klitgaard Claremont Graduate School
discussion of books
Klitgaard, Tropical Gangsters

Short Precise of book

Strengths, weaknesses, critique

Compare to earlier reading

What else have you been reading?

Picard, Groelsema, et. al.

Picard and Buss, A Fragile Balance?

Lancaster

Discussion of Books: