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Chapter 18

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  1. Chapter 18 Protists Protist Introduction Video

  2. 18-1 Kingdom Protista • Organisms whose cells contain nuclei and membrane-enclosed organelles

  3. Protist • Any member of the kingdom protista, being unicellular, or single-celled, eukaryotic organisms

  4. Monerans are more than 3.5 billion years old and protists are only about 1.5 billion years old which means it took 2 billion years for them to evolve

  5. About 115,000 species, they have characteristics in common with more than one of the three kingdoms of multicellular organisms

  6. to solve the problem of classifying these difficult organisms

  7. the protists may share an evolutionary ancestry

  8. Endosymbionts • Symbiotic organisms that live within another organism, which is called the host organism

  9. Endosymbiont Theory

  10. Cyanophora paradoxa

  11. Protista Video

  12. 18-2 Animallike Protists • 4 Phyla: • 1. Ciliophora • 2. Zoomastigina • 3. Sporozoa • 4. Sarcodina

  13. Ciliophora • Example: Paramecium • Known as ciliates • Almost all use cilia for movement

  14. Cilia-Short hair like projections that produce movement

  15. A large unicellular organism


  17. A pellicle

  18. A series of tiny flask-shaped structures that are used for defense. If a danger comes near by they discharge. They are similar to spines that can injure an organism that comes near it

  19. Macronucleus & micronucleus

  20. Paramecium digestion • It uses its cilia to force water into its gullet which is an indentation in one side of the cell. Bacteria that is in the water then gets forced into cavities called food vacuoles. The food vacuoles fuse with lysosomes that contain digestive enzymes. Waste material are emptied into the environment when the food vacuole fuses with a region of the cell membrane called the anal pore


  22. When it gets filled with water it contracts and pumps water out of the cell

  23. Conjugation and binary fission

  24. New combinations of genetic information are produced. Helps create genetic diversity and ensure that ultimate survival of the species

  25. Zoomastigina • Animallike protists that move through the water by means of flagella

  26. They are long whiplike projections that have an internal structure identical to that of cilia. They are sometimes called flagellates.

  27. Gamete cells are produced by meiosis which fuse together, forming an organism with a new combination of genetic information

  28. Sporozoa • nonmotile • parasitic • have complex life cycles that involve more than one host • reproduce by means of spores • A typical sporozoan is Plasmodium

  29. Malaria Plasmodium: (Trypanosoma)

  30. Malaria (Anopheles Mosquito) Malaria Video

  31. Sarcodina • Protists that use temporary projections of cytoplasm to move and feed which is called a pseudopod • Includes amebas and foraminifers

  32. Major family of Sarcodina that are flexible, cells without cell walls, flagella, cilia, and even a definite shape

  33. It captures particles of food and other cells by surrounding it with the cytoplasm and then taking it inside the cell to form a food vacuole. They reproduce by means of binary fission

  34. Summary • Ciliophora: known for as ciliates. Almost all ciliates use cilia for movement • Zoomastigina: known as flagellates because they use flagella for movement • Sprozoa: (plasmodium) reproduce by means of spores, sporozoans are nonmotile and parasitic • Sarcodina: includes amebas and forminifers. Use pseudopods for feeding and movement

  35. Three Diseases • 1. Malaria (Trypanosoma) Vector is the Anopheles Mosquito • 2. African Sleeping Sickness (Trypanosomes) vector is the tsetse fly • 3. Amebic dysentray (Entamoeba) No vector just drinking unsterilized water

  36. Helpful relationships • 1. Trychonympha is a zoomastiginan that allows termites to digest cellulose in wood • 2. Zooplankton in oceans feed many animals

  37. 18-3 Plantlike Protists • 5 Phyla of plantlike Protists: • Must contain chlorophyll and carry out photosynthesis • Known as phytoflagellates (have flagella and phyta = plants) • Euglenophyta, Pyrrophyta, and Chrysophyta: Plantlike protists • Acrasiomycota and Myxomycota are not photosynthetic and are funguslike protists

  38. Protist Diversity

  39. Euglenophyta: Flagellates with Chloroplasts • Very similar to zoomastiginans • They are photosynthetic flagellates (contain chloroplasts) • Euglena –a long cell that has a pouch that contains two flagella at its front end • Has a red eye spot that allows it to find the brightest light (phototrophic autotroph)



  42. Pyrrophyta: Fire Protists • Group of organisms known as dinoflagellates • Most are photosynthetic, and some are luminescent (give off light) • Their DNA is different because they do not have histone proteins



  45. Chrysophyta: Golden Protists • Diverse group of protists that have gold-colored chloroplasts • Most are diatoms (produce intricate cell walls rich in silicon which is the main ingredient in glass) • Photosynthetic protists that lack flagella and live in glasslike boxes


  47. The Slime Molds: Unusual Protists • Found near rich sources of food (rotting wood) • At one stage of their lifecycle they appear amebalike and then mold like • Considered both amebas and fungi


  49. Acrasiomycota: Cellular Slime Molds • Begin as cells that look like amebas • Reproduce rapidly when the food is plentiful and then when the food is gone they come together and work as one organism • They then produce fruiting bodies that make spores to start the life cycle over again