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Chapter 18. Classification. 18-1 Finding Order in Diversity. Taxonomy- using a classification system to name and group organisms What is a bird?. Carolus Linnaeus Binomial nomenclature- each species is assigned a two-part scientific name Genus, Species Ursus arctos. Ursus arctos

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chapter 18

Chapter 18

Classification

18 1 finding order in diversity
18-1 Finding Order in Diversity
  • Taxonomy- using a classification system to name and group organisms
  • What is a bird?
slide4

Carolus Linnaeus

  • Binomial nomenclature- each species is assigned a two-part scientific name
  • Genus, Species

Ursusarctos

slide5

Ursusarctos

Ursusmaritimus

Ailuropodamelanoleuca

taxons
Taxons

Kingdom- Animalia

Phylum- Chordata

Class- Mammalia

Order- Primates

Family- Hominidae

Genus- Homo

Species- sapiens

taxons1
Taxons

Kingdom- Animalia

taxons2
Taxons

Kingdom- Animalia

Phylum- Chordata

taxons3
Taxons

Kingdom- Animalia

Phylum- Chordata

Class- Mammalia

taxons4
Taxons

Kingdom- Animalia

Phylum- Chordata

Class- Mammalia

Order- Carnivora

taxons5
Taxons

Kingdom- Animalia

Phylum- Chordata

Class- Mammalia

Order- Carnivora

Family- Ursidae

taxons6
Taxons

Kingdom- Animalia

Phylum- Chordata

Class- Mammalia

Order- Carnivora

Family- Ursidae

Genus- Ursus

taxons7
Taxons

Kingdom- Animalia

Phylum- Chordata

Class- Mammalia

Order- Carnivora

Family- Ursidae

Genus- Ursus

Species- arctos

18 2 modern evolutionary classification
18-2 Modern Evolutionary Classification

Which similarities are most important?

evolutionary classification
Evolutionary Classification
  • Phylogeny- grouping of organisms into categories based on evolutionary descent
    • Not physical characteristics
cladogram
Cladogram
  • Cladogram- a diagram showing the evolutionary relationships among a group of organisms
  • Derived characteristics- traits that appear in recent parts of a lineage but not its older members
similarities in dna and rna
Similarities in DNA and RNA
  • Similarities in DNA can be used to determine classification and evolutionary relationships
  • Myosin: a protein found in human muscles and in yeasts that allow internal cell parts to move
slide19

More similarities- more recently shared a common ancestor

  • Less similarities- further back in time shared a common ancestor

African vulture American vulture Stork

molecular clocks
Molecular Clocks

Molecular clock- uses DNA comparison to estimate the length of time that two species have been evolving independently

Mutations- effect (positive or negative) or no effect

Neutral mutations accumulate at the same rate

clock variation
Clock variation
  • Some genes accumulate mutations at a faster rate than others
18 3 kingdoms and domains
18-3 Kingdoms and Domains
  • 3 Domains
    • Bacteria
    • Archaea
    • Eukarya
18 3 kingdoms and domains1
18-3 Kingdoms and Domains
  • 6 Kingdoms
    • Eubacteria
    • Achaebacteria
    • Protista
    • Fungi
    • Plantae
    • Animalia
  • 3 Domains
    • Bacteria
    • Archaea
    • Eukarya