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Basic Organic Nomenclature and Functional Groups ( Chapter 16 ) PowerPoint Presentation
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Basic Organic Nomenclature and Functional Groups ( Chapter 16 ). Hydrocarbons: contain carbon and hydrogen. Hydrocarbons: contain carbon and hydrogen Alkanes contain only single bonds Alkenes contain at least one double bond Alkynes contain at least one triple bond.

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slide3

Hydrocarbons: contain carbon and hydrogen

    • Alkanes contain only single bonds
    • Alkenes contain at least one double bond
    • Alkynes contain at least one triple bond
slide4

Hydrocarbons: contain carbon and hydrogen

    • Alkanes contain only single bonds
    • Alkenes contain at least one double bond
    • Alkynes contain at least one triple bond
  • General Formulas:
    • Alkanes = CnH2n+2
    • Alkenes = CnH2n
    • Alkynes = CnH2n-2
slide6

Hydrocarbons Nomenclature:

  • Two part names:
    • Prefix based on the number of carbon atoms in the chain
    • Suffix based on alkane, alkene, or alkyne
slide7

Hydrocarbons Nomenclature:

  • Two part names:
    • Prefix based on the number of carbon atoms in the chain
    • Suffix based on alkane, alkene, or alkyne
  • Memorize these prefixes, in order:

1 – Meth

2 – Eth

3 – Prop

4 – But

5 – Pent

6 – Hex

7 – Hept

8 – Oct

9 – Non

10 – Dec

slide8

Meth + ane, ene, yne

Methane:

Methene: does not exist

Methyne: does not exist

slide9

Eth + ane, ene, yne

Ethane:

Ethene:

Ethyne:

slide10

Prop + ane, ene, yne

Propane:

Propene:

Propyne:

slide11

But + ane, ene, yne

Butane:

Butene:

Butyne:

slide12

Pent + ane, ene, yne

Pentane:

Pentene:

Pentyne:

slide13

Hex + ane, ene, yne

Hexane:

Hexene:

Hexyne:

slide14

Hept + ane, ene, yne

Heptane:

Heptene:

Heptyne:

slide15

Oct + ane, ene, yne

Octane:

Octene:

Octyne:

slide16

Non + ane, ene, yne

Nonane:

Nonene:

Nonyne:

slide17

Dec + ane, ene, yne

Decane:

Decene:

Decyne:

slide18

Functional Groups:

    • Common groups of elements added to hydrocarbons that change their chemistry
    • Can be added on the end or interior
    • Names are changed to reflect the functional group(s)
slide19

Cyclo-hydrocarbons

    • Carbons are in a ring
    • lowers expected C:H ratio by 2 hydrogens
  • Cyclohexane: Cyclohexene:
  • 1, 3, 5 cyclohexene :
  • Or benzene or phenyl
slide20

Alcohols: have a hydroxide functional group

    • Usually on the end, but doesn’t have to be
    • Name ends in “ol”
  • Ethanol:
slide21

Amines: contain nitrogen inside or on the end of the carbon chain

    • N can form up to 3 bonds, so either there is 1 chain and 2 H, 2 chains and 1 H, or 3 chains
    • The suffix “amine” is added
    • If there chains, the nitrogen is counted as being attached to the longest chain, and an italic N is used to show the shorter chains are attached to the nitrogen
    • If the N is inside a single chain, an infixed number is used
slide22

Methanamine:

Butan-2-amine:

N-methylethanamine:

slide23

Carboxylic acids: an end carbon is double bonded to O and to hydroxide

    • The carbonyl carbon counts as part of the chain
    • The suffix “ioc acid” is added
    • Can have one on each end of a chain, but naming that is beyond the scope of AP (especially if there are several branches)
  • Ethanioc Acid:
  • (Acetic Acid)