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Selecting Research-Based Instructional Strategies for K-7 Students With Learning Difficulties. Martha J. Larkin, PhD 43rd Annual Conference of the Virginia State Reading Association March 2010. The Problem.

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Selecting research based instructional strategies for k 7 students with learning difficulties l.jpg

Selecting Research-Based Instructional Strategies for K-7 Students With Learning Difficulties

Martha J. Larkin, PhD

43rd Annual Conference of the Virginia State Reading Association

March 2010


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The Problem Students With Learning Difficulties

  • About 20% of students nationwide encounter reading difficulties before third grade

  • Nearly 40% of children read below grade level

    (Kame’enui, Carnine, Dixon, Simmons, & Coyne, 2002)

  • About 85% of students with a learning disability have a primary disability in reading and language processing.

    (IDA, 2007)

    http://www.ldonline.org/article/Dyslexia_Basics


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A Solution Students With Learning Difficulties

A mnemonic, READING, can help to evaluate powerful instructional strategies to use with diverse groups of elementary and middle school students who struggle with reading.


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A Mnemonic Can Help Students With Learning Difficulties

Research-based

Efficient and effective

Applicable

Doable

Interesting

Needed now

Generalizable


R esearch based l.jpg
R Students With Learning Difficultiesesearch-based

No Child Left Behind (NCLB)

Teachers are expected to use only research-based instructional strategies and intervene for every child as soon as a reading problem is noticed.

Response to Intervention (RTI)

(Bender & Larkin, 2009)


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R Students With Learning Difficultiesesearch-based

National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. (2000). Report of the National Reading Panel. Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction.

http://www.nationalreadingpanel.org/Publications/summary.htm


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R Students With Learning Difficultiesesearch-based

  • National Reading Panel (NRP) Report

    • Alphabetics

      • Phonemic Awareness

      • Phonics

    • Fluency

    • Comprehension

      • Vocabulary

      • Text Comprehension

      • Teacher Preparation and Comprehension Strategies

    • Teacher Education and Reading Instruction

    • Computer Technology and Reading Instruction.


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R Students With Learning Difficultiesesearch-based

  • Developed using concepts and/or information shown to be successful (i.e., achieve desired results) as indicated by studies reported in professional literature

    • Credibility of source(s) reporting studies

    • When research was conducted

    • Appropriateness of study design and/or credibility of researchers

    • Applicability to your students and situation


E fficient and effective l.jpg
E Students With Learning Difficultiesfficient and effective

  • Efficient – works well without waste

    • time is well spent

    • effort is well spent

  • Effective – produces desired result

    • achievement, may be assessed by test scores or other measures


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A Students With Learning Difficultiespplicable

  • Applicable – put to practical use

    • Does it“apply” to the lesson/

      assignment?

    • Does it have the potential to help?

    • May not be “one size fits all”.

    • May be used sometimes, but not others.


D oable l.jpg
D Students With Learning Difficultiesoable

  • Do I have

    knowledge and skills

    time

    curricula/materials


I nteresting l.jpg
I Students With Learning Difficultiesnteresting

To students To teacher


N eeded now l.jpg
N Students With Learning Difficultieseeded now

  • Does the student have the prerequisite skills?

  • Will this teach a skill or concept in a different way, supplement current instruction, provide extra practice, etc.?


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G Students With Learning Difficultieseneralizable

  • Applying strategies learned in different ways and situations

    • Same class, but different topic

    • Other subjects and classes

    • In the “real world”


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Applying The READING Mnemonic Students With Learning Difficulties

  • Select an instructional strategy or activity

  • Evaluate the selected strategy or activity using the READING checklist

    • Does the strategy/activity meet most or all of the criteria on the checklist?

      • If yes, proceed with the strategy/activity.

      • If no, determine if the strategy/activity meets enough of the criteria to be beneficial to students.


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Picture Sort Students With Learning Difficulties(Beginning Letter/Sound)(Bender & Larkin, 2009)


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Word Sort Students With Learning Difficulties(Word Families)(Bender & Larkin, 2009)


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Word Sort Students With Learning Difficulties(Consonant and Vowel Patterns) (Bender & Larkin, 2009)


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Applying READING to Picture/Word Sorts Students With Learning Difficulties

  • Research-based

    • NRP Report indicated that teaching students to manipulate phonemes in words was highly effective

    • Joseph, L. M. & Orlins (2005) Reading Improvement

    • Joseph, L. M. (2002) School Psychology Review article & (2000) Reading Research and Instruction article

    • Joseph referenced other studies in her articles


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Applying READING to Picture/Word Sorts Students With Learning Difficulties

  • Efficient and Effective

    • Can take as little or as long as desired or needed

    • Can be done daily or several times a week

    • Some preparation of word cards necessary (teacher may prepare for younger students while older students can make their own)

    • Student effort is required


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Applying READING to Picture/Word Sorts Students With Learning Difficulties

  • Applicable

    • Can be used with a variety of lessons and assignments

    • Can help students who need practice with the targeted skill(s)

    • Can be used with individuals, small groups, or large groups of students


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Applying READING to Picture/Word Sorts Students With Learning Difficulties

  • Doable

    • You have just learned the basics (knowledge and skills) of using picture/word sorts. See Bear, Invernizzi, Templeton, & Johnston, 2008 ;Bender & Larkin, 2009 for more ideas.

    • You have time to teach word sorts because they only take a few minutes each day or several times a week

    • You can use existing curricula and materials along with index cards, clip art, and markers to create word sort activities


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Applying READING to Picture/Word Sorts Students With Learning Difficulties

  • Interesting

    • To students – picture/word sorts can be made game like. Also, each student can be involved and work at his or her own pace.

    • To teachers – picture/word sorts can bring out a teacher’s creative side to create a variety of picture/word activities to target individual and group needs.


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Applying READING to Picture/Word Sorts Students With Learning Difficulties

  • Needed Now

    • Picture/word sorts can be created or adapted for almost any lesson and can target a variety of different skills that individuals or groups of students need.


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Applying READING to Picture/Word Sorts Students With Learning Difficulties

  • Generalizable

    • Picture/word sorting activities have the potential to be generalizable.

    • Students may not always have cards to sort in many situations, but the sorting practice helps them to look for similar and different characteristics of pictures/words to help them categorize information.


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Vocabulary Cartoons Students With Learning Difficulties

  • Vocabulary Word with pronunciation and most common definition

  • Association Link Word – rhyming word or phrase that sounds like vocabulary word and links the two together

  • Mnemonic Cartoon - visually reinforces vocabulary and linking word

  • Caption – reinforces vocabulary and linking word in a sentence

  • Sample Sentences – use the vocabulary word in context and may give different tenses of it

    www.vocabularycartoons.com


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Vocabulary Cartoons Students With Learning Difficulties

www.vocabularycartoons.com


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www.vocabularycartoons.com Students With Learning Difficulties


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www.vocabularycartoons.com Students With Learning Difficulties


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www.vocabularycartoons.com Students With Learning Difficulties


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Your Students With Learning DifficultiesTurn

Use the READING CHECKLIST

to evaluate Vocabulary Cartoons

Use the

READING CHECKLIST

to Evaluate

Vocabulary Cartoons


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References Students With Learning Difficulties

  • Bear, D. R., Invernizzi, M., Templeton, S., & Johnson, F. (2008). Words their way: Word study for phonics, vocabulary, and spelling instruction (4th ed.) Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

  • Bender, W. N., & Larkin, M. J. (2009). Reading strategies for elementary students with learning difficulties: Strategies for RTI (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, Inc.

  • Burchers, S., Burchers, M., & Burchers, B. (1998). Vocabulary cartoons: Building an educated vocabulary with visual mnemonics (Elementary ed.). Punta Gorda, FL: New Monic Books. www.vocabularycartoons.com


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References Students With Learning Difficulties

  • Joseph, L. M. (2000). Developing first- graders’ phonemic awareness, word identification, and spelling: A comparison of two contemporary phonic instructional approaches. Reading Research and Instruction, 39, 160-169.

  • Joseph, L. M. (2002). Facilitating word recognition and spelling using word boxes and word sort phonic procedures, School Psychology Review 31(1), 122-129.

  • Joseph, L. M. & Orlins, A. (2005). Multiple uses of a word study technique. Reading Improvement 42 (2), 73-79.


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References Students With Learning Difficulties

  • Kame’enui, E.J., Carnine, D.W., Dixon, R.C., Simmons,

    D.C., & Coyne, M.D. (2002). Effective teaching strategies that accommodate diverse learners. (2nd ed.) Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Merrill- Prentice Hall.

  • International Dyslexia Association. (2007). Dyslexia basics. http://www.ldonline.org/article/Dyslexia_Basics

  • National Institute of Child Health and Development. (2000). Report of the National Reading Panel. Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction http://www.nationalreadingpanel.org/Publications/summary.htm


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A Resource Students With Learning Difficulties

http://www.corwin.com/corwinSearch.nav?&_requestid=1304780