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PENULISAN PENDAHULUAN

PENULISAN PENDAHULUAN

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PENULISAN PENDAHULUAN

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  1. PENULISAN PENDAHULUAN Latar Belakang & Perumusan Masalah, Tujuan Penelitian, Kegunaan Penelitian, Ruang Lingkup (Cakupan) Penelitian, Penyusunan Hipotesis

  2. The Scientific Method • Develop the problem • Develop a theoretical solution to the problem • Formulate the hypothesis or question • Formulate the research plan (methods) • Collect and analyze the data • Interpret the results and form conclusions • Refine the theory

  3. Identification of the Research Problem

  4. Steps to be Taken • Identify a general problem area • Revise & narrow the problem statement • IDE (Idea)  Topik (Topic) • Judul (Title)

  5. Worthwhile? Identify a general problem area Criteria to use: • Interest • Theoretical value • Practical value • Workability • Critical mass

  6. Identify a general problem area • Why do people drop out of recreation programs? How do you make this applied research vs. basic research vs. action research?

  7. Identify a general problem area • Review the literature • Get broad overview using secondary sources • Write a general problem statement

  8. Outline of the Problem • Topic: Attrition in Recreation Programs • Statement of the Problem: The problem was to determine why participants in recreation programs drop out.

  9. Writing Problem Statements • Tells what will be (or was) done • Identifies variables & relationships to be studied

  10. Revise & narrow the problem statement • Review primary sources in the literature • Identify primary sources • Read & record the literature • Focus should be on identifying questions that need to be answered (theoretically & practically)

  11. Revise & narrow the problem statement • Review primary sources in the literature • Make a list of research questions • Provide a rationale for the problem • Identify variables to be studied • Rewrite the problem statement

  12. Outline of the Problem • Results of Previous Studies • Questions to be Answered: • What is the extent of the attrition? • What is the nature of the attrition? • What are the causes of the attrition? • What is the relationship of the cause of attrition to each type of attrition? • Are there any factors that explain the causes of attrition?

  13. Statement of the Problem • The problem was to determine the extent to which participants in recreation programs drop out, the reasons for their dropping out, and the relationship of various facts to loss of enrollment.

  14. The Scientific Method • Develop the problem • Develop a theoretical solution to the problem • Formulate the hypothesis or question • Formulate the research plan (methods) • Collect and analyze the data • Interpret the results and form conclusions • Refine the theory

  15. Development of the Research Question or Hypothesis

  16. Steps to be Taken • Delimit the problem • Rewrite the problem statement • Write the hypotheses/research questions • Identify assumptions & limitations • Develop operational definitions

  17. Steps to be Taken • Delimit the problem • Rewrite the problem statement • Write the hypotheses/research questions • Identify assumptions & limitations • Develop operational definitions

  18. Identify independent (cause, what is manipulated) and dependent (effect, what is measured) variables to be measured

  19. Outline of the Problem • What is the extent of the attrition? • In each season? • In different programs?

  20. Outline of the Problem • What is the nature of the attrition? • Males and females? • People of different ages? • People of different geographic regions? • People with different backgrounds in recreation? • Combinations of the above?

  21. Outline of the Problem • What are the causes of attrition? • Economic reasons? • Personality differences? • Personal (other than economic) reasons? • Other?

  22. Steps to be Taken • Delimit the problem • Rewrite the problem statement • Write the hypotheses/research questions • Identify assumptions & limitations • Develop operational definitions

  23. Variables • Any characteristic or phenomenon that can vary (or change) across organisms, situations, or environments

  24. Types of Variables

  25. Statement of the Problem • The problem was to determine the extent to which participants in outdoor recreation programs in college drop out and the reasons for their dropping out.

  26. Steps to be Taken • Delimit the problem • Rewrite the problem statement • Write the hypotheses/research questions • Identify assumptions & limitations • Develop operational definitions

  27. Which should it be?

  28. Hypotheses • Research hypothesis • Alternative hypothesis • Null hypothesis

  29. Examples of Research Hypotheses • If children are taught to read via whole language, then their reading comprehension will be higher. • If children watch 3 or more hours of TV per day, then their behavior on the playground will become more aggressive. • If children learn in small cooperative groups, then their social interactions will be more positive.

  30. Form of Research Hypotheses • IF, THEN: If young children take piano lessons, then they will have higher math aptitude 10 years later. • STATEMENT: Young children who take piano lessons will have higher math aptitude 10 years later. • QUESTION: Will young children who take piano lessons have higher math aptitude 10 years later?

  31. Null Hypothesis & Statistics • STATISTICAL QUESTION: How likely is it (what is the probability) that the actual findings in the sample would be obtained if the null hypothesis was true? • STATISTICAL ANSWER: p value (probability value p =.05) • There is a 5% (5 in 100) chance that the actual findings in the sample would be obtained if the null hypothesis is true.

  32. Examples • RESEARCH: If children watch violent TV, then they will act more aggressively at recess. • ALTERNATIVE: Children prone to aggression simply watch more violent TV. • NULL: In a population of school-age children there is no relationship between TV violence and aggressive behavior.

  33. Steps to be Taken • Delimit the problem • Rewrite the problem statement • Write the hypotheses/research questions • Identify assumptions & limitations • Develop operational definitions

  34. Limitations - Example • This sample represented college students in the Northwest United States. Caution should be taken in extrapolating these results to people of other age groups in other geographic locations.

  35. Assumptions - Examples • All participants who sign up for recreation programs do so voluntarily. • All outdoor recreation programs are taught by qualified personnel.

  36. Assumptions - Examples • All subjects completed the questionnaire honestly and correctly. • The subjects understood the directions as they were intended. • The subjects were a representative sample of college students in the Northwest.

  37. Steps to be Taken • Delimit the problem • Rewrite the problem statement • Write the hypotheses/research questions • Identify assumptions & limitations • Develop operational definitions

  38. Operational Definition • Presumed indicator of a construct • Makes construct observable (empirical) & quantifiable • Caution: loss of meaning

  39. Creativity: Operational Definition • Teacher’s ratings on a scale of 1-10 • Number of recognized science projects • Number of unusual uses for a briick named within one minute • Ratings of a short story written by students as judged by a creativity “expert” • Score on a researcher-developed test of creativity

  40. Correctly solving logic problem Answering questions about word meanings Repeating backward strings of 8 numbers Solving a math problem Using “street smarts” to achieve a goal Starting a new business Paraphrasing the theme of a written paragraph Solving an equation Executing a triple lutz Intelligence: Operational Definition

  41. The Scientific Method • Develop the problem • Develop a theoretical solution to the problem • Formulate the hypothesis or question • Formulate the research plan (methods) • Collect and analyze the data • Interpret the results and form conclusions • Refine the theory

  42. Minggu ke-4 4) PENALARAN & PREDIKSI • Reasoning, Penalaran deduktif dari hipotesis dan teori, • Disusun dalam suatu Tinjauan Pustaka yang dapat menarasikan dasar perumusan masalah dan hipotesis