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German Unification 1850s – 1871. People and Terms to know. Manteuffel Chancellor to King Frederick William IV Chancellor : head of government (equiv to GB Prime Minister) Regent: ruler of country while monarch is ill/absent or weak William 1 : successor to KWF IV, 1861

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people and terms to know
People and Terms to know
  • Manteuffel Chancellor to King Frederick William IV
  • Chancellor: head of government (equiv to GB Prime Minister)
  • Regent: ruler of country while monarch is ill/absent or weak
  • William 1: successor to KWF IV, 1861
  • Nationalverein: German National Union 1859 – Aim: 1 central gvt for all Germany
  • Progressive Party: Prussian Liberal Party
  • Junkers: German landlords/aristocracy – support monarch
  • Budget: A spending plan proposed by monarch
  • Mobilisation: preparation and movement of armed forces for war
  • Von Roon: War Minister to KW1
  • Von Moltke: Chief of Staff (Commander of Army)
  • Landwehr: part-time soldiers, favoured Liberals
  • National Liberals: would give support to Monarch‘s plan
  • Landtag: Lower House of Parliament (=GB House of Commons)
  • Impasse: stalemate.
  • Abdication: give up the throne/crown
  • Luckentheorie: loop hole in Prussian Constitution Bismarck used to carry on with military budget spending in 1861
  • Realpolitik:: doing what is practical as opposed to doing what is ideal.
  • Opportunism: taking advantage of opportunities as they arise.
the prussian constitutional crisis
The Prussian Constitutional Crisis
  • Cameron, Robertson, Henderson p63 – 78
constitutional crisis 1
Constitutional Crisis (1)
  • King William 1 was a leading figure in German unification because:
      • Replaced conservative, Manteuffel, with a liberal minister
      • Believed in unification. Prussia as leader
proposed changes to prussian army
Proposed changes to Prussian army:
  • Army training 2-3 years full time for all men.
  • 3-4 years training in reserves
  • Landwehr (part-timesoldiers) to be abolished
  • 49 more regiments
  • 9million thalers (£1.5mill) per year to pay for changes
  • New weapons to be intro’d
  • Army strength increased from 230,000 to 450,000.
why military changes
Why military changes?
  • Prussian military support of Austria vs France was shambolic
  • Traditionally Prussian army strong/proud
  • KWI was a soldier himself
  • Re-establish Prussian authority in Europe
why liberal opposition to military proposals
Why Liberal Opposition to Military proposals
  • Reforms would make men more loyal to King. They would oppose Liberals (evidence 1848)
  • Junkers power and influence would increase.
  • Landwehr – Liberal supporters – would decrease
  • Cost of reforms = increased taxes. Liberals = middle classes = taxpayers.
the crisis
The Crisis
  • Prussian Constitution allows PT to agree/veto the budget
  • KW wants to spend on army development
  • 1860 Liberal PT refuses whole budget – agree to 1 year spending
  • KW goes ahead anyway because is supported by Upper House (Junkers)
  • 1861 same again but splits Liberals: National Libs accept budget. Progressives reject totally.
  • Elections 1861. Progressive Pty big victory. Refuse budget.
  • KW dissolves PT.
  • More elections
  • Same again
  • CONSTITUTIONAL CRISIS!!!!!!!!!!
  • IMPASSE: no give from either side. Stalemate.
possible solutions to the crisis
Possible solutions to the Crisis
  • KW abolish PT, rule by decree
  • KW sees himself as a failure. Suggests abdication!
  • Appoint new Chancellor.
decision
Decision
  • Solution iii: Appoint Otto Von Bismarck as the new Chancellor. 1862
  • Summoned to Prussia by Von Roon
  • “Periculum in mora. Dépêchez-vous!”
  • “Delay is dangerous, hurry!”
bismarck the man

The soldier

The statesman/politician

l to r. Bismarck, von Roon, von Moltke

BISMARCK the man

The congenial gentleman

(the ladies’ man!)