Download
slide1 n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Chapter 4 frontispiece. A valley in Kashmir, high in the Himalayas, India PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Chapter 4 frontispiece. A valley in Kashmir, high in the Himalayas, India

Chapter 4 frontispiece. A valley in Kashmir, high in the Himalayas, India

91 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

Chapter 4 frontispiece. A valley in Kashmir, high in the Himalayas, India

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. 030 Chapter 4 frontispiece. A valley in Kashmir, high in the Himalayas, India E.A. Mathez, 2009, Climate Change: The Science of Global Warming and Our Energy Future, Columbia University Press. Photograph by E.A. Mathez

  2. 031 Figure 4.1. The Keeling curve E.A. Mathez, 2009, Climate Change: The Science of Global Warming and Our Energy Future, Columbia University Press. Source: Scripps Institution of Oceanography CO2 Program

  3. 032 Table 4.1. Sizes of the carbon reservoirs Rock reservoir 50 x 106 metric gigatons Limestone 40x 106 Organic carbon in sedimentary rocks 10x 106 Fossil fuels 4.7 x 103 Marine carbonate sediments 2.5 x 103 World ocean 39 x 103 Bicarbonate ion 37 x 103 Carbonate ion 1.3 x 103 Dissolved CO2 0.74 x 103 Organic carbon in soils and terrestrial sediments 1.6 x 103 Organic carbon in permafrost 0.9 x 103 Atmospheric CO2 0.76 x 103 Living biomass 0.6 x 103 E.A. Mathez, 2009, Climate Change: The Science of Global Warming and Our Energy Future, Columbia University Press. Sources: Kump et al., 2004 and Zimov et al., 2006

  4. 033 Removal of CO2 from the atmosphere 4CO2 + 6H2O + CaSiO3 + MgSiO3 Ca++ + Mg++ + 4HCO3- + 2H4SiO4 atmospheric carbon dioxide + water + calcium- and magnesium-bearing silicate minerals  dissolved calcium and magnesium cations + bicarbonate ions + silicic acid Formation of shells Ca++ + 2HCO3- CaCO3 + CO2 + H2O calcium + bicarbonate ions dissolved in sea water  calcium carbonate minerals calcite or aragonite + carbon dioxide + water E.A. Mathez, 2009, Climate Change: The Science of Global Warming and Our Energy Future, Columbia University Press. p. 60

  5. 034 Figure 4.2. Coquina E.A. Mathez, 2009, Climate Change: The Science of Global Warming and Our Energy Future, Columbia University Press. Photograph by D. Finnin, American Museum of Natural History

  6. 035 Figure 4.3. Chalk E.A. Mathez, 2009, Climate Change: The Science of Global Warming and Our Energy Future, Columbia University Press. Photograph by Maki Itoh

  7. 036 Dissolved silica precipitates to opal H4SiO4  SiO2 + 2H2O dissolved silica  opal + water E.A. Mathez, 2009, Climate Change: The Science of Global Warming and Our Energy Future, Columbia University Press. p. 61

  8. 037 Figure 4.4. Coal E.A. Mathez, 2009, Climate Change: The Science of Global Warming and Our Energy Future, Columbia University Press. Photograph by D. Finnin, American Museum of Natural History

  9. 038 Return of carbon from deep Earth to surface reservoirs SiO2 + CaCO3 CaSiO3 + CO2 silicate minerals + carbonate minerals  calcium silicate minerals + carbon dioxide Photosynthesis CO2 + H2O  [CH2O] + O2 carbon dioxide + water  carbohydrates, starches, and other organic compounds of plants + oxygen E.A. Mathez, 2009, Climate Change: The Science of Global Warming and Our Energy Future, Columbia University Press, p. 62

  10. 039 Return of terrestrial organic material to atmosphere via plant and animal respiration [CH2O] + O2 CO2 + H2O organic matter + oxygen  carbon dioxide + water Microbial production of methane 2[CH2O]  CO2 + CH4 organic matter  carbon dioxide + methane E.A. Mathez, 2009, Climate Change: The Science of Global Warming and Our Energy Future, Columbia University Press, p. 64-65

  11. 040 Figure 4.5. The global short-term carbon cycle E.A. Mathez, 2009, Climate Change: The Science of Global Warming and Our Energy Future, Columbia University Press.

  12. 041 Table 4.2. Where anthropogenic carbon has come from and where it goes 1800-1994 1980-1999 Emissions From fossil-fuel and cement production 224 ± 20 117 ± 5 metric gigatons From land-use change 100 - 180 24 ± 12 Stored in The atmosphere 165 ± 4 65 ±1 The ocean 118 ± 19 37 ± 8 The biosphere 61 ± 141 39 ± 18 E.A. Mathez, 2009, Climate Change: The Science of Global Warming and Our Energy Future, Columbia University Press. Source: Sabine et al., 2004

  13. 042 Figure 4.6. The distribution of ocean chlorophyll and land vegetation, 1997-2007 E.A. Mathez, 2009, Climate Change: The Science of Global Warming and Our Energy Future, Columbia University Press. Source: NASA

  14. 043 Figure 4.7. The annual net exchange of CO2 between the ocean and the atmosphere E.A. Mathez, 2009, Climate Change: The Science of Global Warming and Our Energy Future, Columbia University Press. Source: Takahashi et al., 1997

  15. 044 Figure 4.8. Aragonite (a) and calcite (b) saturation depths E.A. Mathez, 2009, Climate Change: The Science of Global Warming and Our Energy Future, Columbia University Press. Source: Feely et al., 2004

  16. 045 Figure 4.9. Scanning electron photomicrograph of the phytoplankton Emiliania huxleyi E.A. Mathez, 2009, Climate Change: The Science of Global Warming and Our Energy Future, Columbia University Press. Photograph by Jeremy Young