Chapter 1: Jesus Christ and the Founding of the Church HISTORY OF THE CHURCH
1. The Life of Jesus Christ (pp. 28–33) ANTICIPATORY SET Analyze the illustration “Christ Blessing” (p. 29).
1. The Life of Jesus Christ (pp. 28–33) BASIC QUESTION Who is Jesus Christ, and how can we know him? KEY IDEA We can know what Christ did and taught because he entrusted the Deposit of Faith to the Church he founded.
1. The Life of Jesus Christ (pp. 28–33) GRAPHIC ORGANIZER Complete the following table on Christianity having fulfilled Judaism.
1. The Life of Jesus Christ (pp. 28–33) FOCUS QUESTIONS What were dominant emotions did Christ’s disciples feel in the days after his Crucifixion, Resurrection, and Ascension? His disciples felt doubt and fear. What event transformed Christ’s disciples? The decent of the Holy Spirit on them at Pentecost made the disciples confident heralds of Jesus as the Christ. What does it mean to say that St. Peter is the Vicar of Christ? A vicar is one who acts in the place of another. As the rock upon whom Christ promised to build his Church, St. Peter stands in the place of Christ on earth.
1. The Life of Jesus Christ (pp. 28–33) GUIDED EXERCISE Complete a Think/Pair/Share using the following questions: What function does the sentence “This chapter will explore…” (p. 29) perform within this chapter? Why are these ideas and events significant in a book about the history of the Church?
1. The Life of Jesus Christ (pp. 28–33) FOCUS QUESTIONS What is the chief message of Christ’s Birth? Christ’s Birth in a humble stable is a message of peace, simplicity, material poverty, spiritual abundance, God’s love, and sacrifice. Why did Herod want to kill the infant Christ? What was the result? Herod heard that a king—a potential rival to his throne—had been born in Bethlehem and wanted to kill him at his weakest. Because Herod could not locate Christ, he ordered every male in that city less than two years old to be executed. What were the major events of Christ’s life before his Baptism? They include his Birth in the stable, his Presentation in the Temple, the Holy Family’s Flight into Egypt, and the Finding in the Temple.
1. The Life of Jesus Christ (pp. 28–33) GUIDED EXERCISE Read aloud the excerpt from Josephus’ The Antiquities (p. 55), and then discuss it.
1. The Life of Jesus Christ (pp. 28–33) GUIDED EXERCISE Discuss the following questions: What came first, the Church or the Gospels? Was the Gospel spoken or written first?
1. The Life of Jesus Christ (pp. 28–33) GUIDED EXERCISE In your notebook: (1) draw a map of Palestine the same size as the map on page 31, including the land mass, the Mediterranean shore, and the Sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea linked by the Jordan River; (2) locate and label Jerusalem and Caesarea Philippi; and (3) add the following cities that are not on the map on page 31: Bethlehem (five miles south of Jerusalem) Nazareth (twenty miles west of the south tip of the Sea of Galilee) Capernaum (on the shore of the Sea of Galilee at approximately 11 o’clock)
1. The Life of Jesus Christ (pp. 28–33) GRAPHIC ORGANIZER Work with a partner to complete the following table about why Christ was executed.
1. The Life of Jesus Christ (pp. 28–33) FOCUS QUESTIONS What event began Christ’s public ministry? His Baptism in the Jordan by St. John the Baptist began Christ’s public ministry. What is the Deposit of Faith? The Deposit of Faith is the heritage contained in Sacred Scripture and Sacred Tradition handed down by the Church from the time of the Apostles. Extension: The Deposit of Faith contains all Christ taught and did and wanted to reveal. This was entrusted to his Apostles and is handed on through their successors, the bishops.
1. The Life of Jesus Christ (pp. 28–33) FOCUS QUESTIONS Where is the most succinct and direct collection of Christ’s teaching found? It is found in the Sermon on the Mount (cf. Mt 5–7). How did Christ confirm the truth of his teachings? He performed miracles to show his teachings are of divine origin. Extension: Christ’s greatest miracle was his own Resurrection.
1. The Life of Jesus Christ (pp. 28–33) FOCUS QUESTIONS Why might the author of this text have begun the section on the life of Christ with a quote about taking up one’s cross (cf. p. 30)? This is how Christ defines his followers: by accepting the sufferings of life just as Christ took up his literal Cross unto his Death. Why might the author have only devoted two pages to the life of Christ? This is a history of the Church, not of Christ’s actions on earth. Extension: It would have taken many volumes to examine the life of Christ and many more to explore his identity, a study that has been going on for two millennia.
1. The Life of Jesus Christ (pp. 28–33) GRAPHIC ORGANIZER Work with a partner to complete the following table on the four Gospels.
1. The Life of Jesus Christ (pp. 28–33) HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT Study Questions 1–9 (p. 57) Practical Exercise 1 (p. 57) Workbook Questions 1–18 Read “Pentecost, the Birth of the Church” through “The Church Is Apostolic” (pp. 34–39)
1. The Life of Jesus Christ (pp. 28–33) CLOSURE Analyze the illustration of Christ on page 29. Identify which Evangelist is symbolized in each of the four corners.
1. The Life of Jesus Christ (pp. 28–33) ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENT Free write for five minutes about how you know what Christ did 2000 years ago.
2. Pentecost, the Birth of the Church (pp. 34–39) ANTICIPATORY SET Read silently the quote “Loving Christ means…” (p. 28), and then write for two minutes in your notebooks on the following question: Despite the human shortcomings that exist among the members of the Church, what attitude should people have toward her, and why?
2. Pentecost, the Birth of the Church (pp. 34–39) BASIC QUESTIONS How did Christ’s Church come into being? What are the nature and four marks of Christ’s Church? KEY IDEAS The Holy Spirit’s presence in the Church has given her life, fruitfulness, and endurance throughout history. This began at Pentecost when the Church was born. The Church is a mystery, a human and divine institution, meant to bring salvation to the world. The Church is one, holy, catholic, and apostolic.
2. Pentecost, the Birth of the Church (pp. 34–39) FOCUS QUESTIONS Why were Jews from all over the world gathered in Jerusalem for Pentecost? Because of the Jewish Diaspora, there were Jews living throughout the Roman world. Many returned to the Temple in Jerusalem for the Feast of Pentecost. Why were Christ’s disciples afraid, and were these fears justified? The disciples were afraid of being persecuted by the Jewish authorities. Their fears were justified since their leader had just been executed. What were the effects of the Descent of the Holy Spirit on the day of Pentecost? The Apostles lost their fear and began to preach the Gospel boldly. People from foreign countries even understood them in their own languages, and about 3000 people were baptized that day.
2. Pentecost, the Birth of the Church (pp. 34–39) GUIDED EXERCISE Read aloud the excerpt from Redemptoris Missio (p. 55), and then discuss the following question: What was the significance of Pentecost for the early Church?
2. Pentecost, the Birth of the Church (pp. 34–39) GUIDED EXERCISE Review the map on page 36. Match the illustrations to their locations on the map. Work in pairs to read quietly Acts 8:4–40 and 9:32–43. As you do this, you should follow the six steps on the map.
2. Pentecost, the Birth of the Church (pp. 34–39) FOCUS QUESTION What do the Church’s charisms of infallibility and durability mean? Infallibility means the Church is incapable of formally teaching error in matters of faith and morals. Durability means she will last until the end of time.
2. Pentecost, the Birth of the Church (pp. 34–39) FOCUS QUESTION What are the two dimensions of the nature of the Church? The Church has a visible and an invisible dimension. She is a visible, hierarchical society like any other human organization, but she also has an invisible, spiritual dimension: her teaching and governing authority comes under the guidance of the Holy Spirit.
2. Pentecost, the Birth of the Church (pp. 34–39) FOCUS QUESTIONS What are the two principal meanings of “church”? Church comes from the Greek for thing belonging to God; it refers to the church building. The Latin ecclesia comes from the Greek ekklesia for “assembly,” or “congregation.” What are the aims of the teaching authority and the sanctifying power of the Church? These are intended to bring all people to union with God and each other.
2. Pentecost, the Birth of the Church (pp. 34–39) GUIDED EXERCISE Complete a Think/Pair/Share: Scan Part III (pp. 37–39) to find as many names for the Church as you can.
2. Pentecost, the Birth of the Church (pp. 34–39) GUIDED EXERCISE Complete a Think/Pair/Share using the following prompt: Write one sentence for each of the four marks of the Church, explaining what that mark means.
2. Pentecost, the Birth of the Church (pp. 34–39) GUIDED EXERCISE Work with a partner to read quietly the Catechism, no. 761 (p. 58), about the secret evangelization that is offered to each person. Discuss the following questions: How can people who have never heard of Christ be saved? If this secret evangelization is sufficient for salvation, why is it important to evangelize people directly?
2. Pentecost, the Birth of the Church (pp. 34–39) GUIDED EXERCISE Read aloud the Catechism, nos. 889–891 (p. 58), and then discuss the infallibility of the Magisterium of the Church.
2. Pentecost, the Birth of the Church (pp. 34–39) FOCUS QUESTION What does it mean to say the Church is One and Holy? The Church is One because she professes one Faith in one God and are united in one Baptism, led by the Pope and the bishops in union with him, all over the earth and throughout every age. The Church is Holy because her founder, Jesus Christ, is holy; she is the means to grow in holiness for her members; the Sacraments, which she administers, are holy; finally, all who take advantage of her gifts become holy, whom we call saints.
2. Pentecost, the Birth of the Church (pp. 34–39) FOCUS QUESTION What does it mean to say the Church is Catholic and Apostolic? The Church is Catholic because she is for all people everywhere in the world, in every age, and in every culture. The Church is Apostolic because she is built on the foundation of the Apostles, her faith and governance going back to them in an unbroken line of continuity.
2. Pentecost, the Birth of the Church (pp. 34–39) HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT Study Questions 10–12 (p. 57) Practical Exercises 2–3 (p. 57) Workbook Questions 19–31 Read “The Apostles” through “The Conversion of St. Paul” (pp. 40–45)
2. Pentecost, the Birth of the Church (pp. 34–39) CLOSURE Free write for two minutes in response to the following questions: Which came first: the preaching of the Gospel or the writing of the Gospel? Who decided which books should be included in the Bible and which should not? What do these answers demonstrate about the need for a Church guided by the Holy Spirit?
2. Pentecost, the Birth of the Church (pp. 34–39) ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENT Free write for five minutes on the following question: While nobody can go back to observe the descent of the Holy Spirit on the Apostles nor interview the people who heard the Apostles speaking in languages they had never learned, what evidence exists that these things really did happen?
3. The Apostles (pp. 40–45) ANTICIPATORY SET In this lesson we will be studying the Apostles in greater depth.
3. The Apostles (pp. 40–45) BASIC QUESTIONS What did Christ entrust to his Apostles? What was God’s plan to build up the Church after the Apostles’ deaths? KEY IDEAS Christ chose the Twelve Apostles, with St. Peter as their head, to entrust with the Deposit of Faith, whose twin sources are Sacred Tradition and Sacred Scripture. God’s plan for the continuance of the Church after the Apostles was to hand on their authority to their successors, the bishops.
3. The Apostles (pp. 40–45) GUIDED EXERCISE Mini-lecture on Apostolic Succession. Examine the chart on pages 790–791 in the text, which shows the succession of the Bishop of Rome from St. Peter to Pope Benedict XVI.
3. The Apostles (pp. 40–45) FOCUS QUESTION What does “apostle” mean? What is the difference between a disciple and an Apostle? Apostle comes from the Greek for “to send out”; thus, an apostle is one who is sent. Those who followed Christ were his disciples; out of his disciples he chose twelve to be his Apostles, those he sent out to be the foundation of his Church.
3. The Apostles (pp. 40–45) FOCUS QUESTIONS Why did Christ choose twelve Apostles and not another number? The number twelve coincides with the Twelve Tribes of Israel. When the Apostles decided to replace Judas, what qualification did they insist his successor have, and why was this important? The Apostles decided Judas’ replacement should be someone who was with them throughout Christ’s earthly ministry so he would be an eyewitness of the Resurrection.
3. The Apostles (pp. 40–45) GUIDED EXERCISE Complete a Think/Pair/Share using the following question: What details of the martyrdom of St. Stephen are illustrated in the painting on page 42?
3. The Apostles (pp. 40–45) GUIDED EXERCISE Take an open-workbook quiz on one or two of the questions assigned as homework.
3. The Apostles (pp. 40–45) FOCUS QUESTIONS What is the origin of the office of deacon? The Apostles blessed and commissioned seven men to serve the material needs of the Church so the Apostles could attend to the ministry of the Word (preaching). These men were called deacons (from the Greek for “servants”). What does the creation of the order of deacons reveal about the Apostles’ understanding of their governing role? They believed they had the authority to rule the Church and hand on authority to others.
3. The Apostles (pp. 40–45) FOCUS QUESTIONS What does the martyrdom of St. Stephen reveal about the early Christians’ view of death? St. Stephen is said to have fallen asleep, which implies a belief in the resurrection. This makes death bearable. What is the Sanhedrin, and what was that word’s origin? Sanhedrin is from the Greek for “council.” The Sanhedrin was a council of seventy-one chief priests, scribes, and elders who presided over civil and religious matters in Judea.
3. The Apostles (pp. 40–45) FOCUS QUESTIONS Where did the Sanhedrin claim to have originated, and how did a member join it? The Sanhedrin traced its origin to the council of elders of Moses. To become a member, one received the semicha, a laying on of hands, which transmitted rabbinic authority in the Law. How does the semicha relate to Apostolic Succession? Semicha was a laying on of hands that transmitted rabbinic authority. The Apostles passed on their authority by a laying on of hands.
3. The Apostles (pp. 40–45) GUIDED EXERCISE Work with a partner to complete a Paragraph Shrink on the paragraph “Saul was a pious Jew…” (p. 44).
3. The Apostles (pp. 40–45) FOCUS QUESTION What prompted the first systematic persecution of Christians? After St. Stephen’s ordination as a deacon, he began to work wonders and was arrested and brought before the Sanhedrin. He preached a sermon criticizing Jewish ingratitude toward God and even claimed to see Christ at God’s right hand. St. Stephen was stoned to death for blasphemy. The Jewish authorities then began a severe persecution of the Church in Jerusalem.