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The Civil War. Politics, Life, Events During the Civil War. CONFEDERACY. Politics in the South What was the war about ? *States Rights v. *Federal Power

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the civil war
The Civil War

Politics, Life, Events

During the Civil War

slide2

CONFEDERACY

  • Politics in the SouthWhat was the war about? *States Rights v. *Federal Power
  • Mobilizing an Army Draft (conscription) and Taxes
  • States Rights(South)(will not cooperate with each other)
  • Help from Europe-Recognition as a independent Nation -Great Britain (HELP)
  • 18 to 35 (able bodied whites)
  • 1864 losses changed to 17 to 50
  • Rich planters were exempt (20+)
  • Most southerners fighting DIDN’T Own a slave
slide3

UNION

Politics in the North (is it worth it?)

    • UNIFY the Country
  • Tensions w/ Great Britain
    • Push them to remain NEUTRAL
  • Financial Measures- 3% income tax -national currency (Greenbacks)
  • Emergency Wartime Measures-Draft / “Lincoln declares Martial Law & Arrests” Copperheads
    • Writ of Habeas Corpus SUSPENDED
    • NO TRIAL / NO HEARINGS
slide5

92% were volunteers

  • Age 20 to 45 for Three (3) years
  • Allowed Substitutes to be hired
  • Pay $300 to avoid Conscription
  • BOUNTY JUMPERS
slide10

NYC Draft Riots, (July 13-16, 1863)

  • 1863
  • poor crowded into slums
  • Poverty-Crime-Disease are rampant
  • Poor white (immigrant) workers - against fighting a war to free slaves (who is freeing me?)
  • Fear “free” blacks competing for jobs

Political & Economic Fear (NATIVISM)

slide11
North - $$Economic Boom$$ -Immense Profits / Jobs Growth -Sets Economy for next 100 yrs. -1st Income Tax (to pay for war)
  • Trans-Continental RR: 1862
  • Homestead Act: 1862westward expansion
  • Medical Improvements
    • Sanitary Commissions
    • “Angels of the Battlefield” Clara Barton - The Red Cross
  • (Antiseptic for Wounds)
    • Joseph Lister (1865 England)
the hardships of war
The Hardships of War . . .
  • The Southern Economy (blockade effects) * inflation and starvation * Lack of Labor * Women Fill Jobs * Food v. Cotton * Hyper Inflation Prices
  • Prison Camps (north & south)

(Camp Andersonville - South Georgia) (Camp Douglas - Chicago) “Eighty Acres of Hell”

Death and Disease

emancipation and the war
Emancipation and the War . . . .
  • Lincoln and the issue of slavery
    • Personal View (moral issue)
      • But did Federal Gov’t have authority to abolish it where it already existed?
    • Military Strategy (win the war)
      • Force British Neutrality
      • Slaves (in south) could be “freed” by Army as they fight
        • Would hurt their war effort
    • Abolitionist’s PUSH the effort
      • African-American’s want to fight
emancipation and the war14
Emancipation and the War . . . .
  • Emancipation ProclamationJan. 1, 1863 - Slavery issue of War
  • Results of the Proclamation
    • Was a Military Action - NO Immediate Effect
    • Only applied to areas (to be conquered) behind Confederate Lines
  • Reaction to the Proclamation -Promised Freedom if Union WINS -Inspired runaways/ Join to fight -Pressures England (NOT) support South
slide16
Slavery becomes the “Main Issue” - Hurt the south’s war effort - Abolitionist’s (Radical Republicans) - Foreign Aid for the South
african americans fight
African Americans Fight

The Contraband Issue

Re-enslaved / Shot on Sight

  • New York City Draft Riots
    • Political / Economic Fear (NATIVISM)
      • The New York City Draft Riots of 1863
  • African American Soldiers-by 1865 180,000 had joined -54th Massachusets
  • (Ft. Wagner,SC)
    • Movie: GLORY
  • Sgt. William Carney

(Congressional Medal of Honor)

slide18
April 12, 1861 Confederate Troops fire on Union troops in Fort Sumter
  • April 15th Lincoln calls for volunteers to Stop the Rebellion ( Preserve the Union )
  • Other States Secede VA, NC, TN, AR
  • Border Slaves States remain in the Union DE, MD, KY, MO
  • Copper Heads – Southern sympathizers in North (Border States)

UNION

CONFEDERACY

civil war
Western Campaign

BATTLES

Eastern Campaign

BATTLES

CIVIL WAR

1861

1862

1863

1864

1865

civil war23
“CIVIL WAR”

Western Campaign

BATTLES

Feb - Grant / Tennessee

April - Battle of Shiloh

June - Memphis

- New Orleans

July 4 - Vicksburg Surrenders

Sept - Chickamauga

Nov - Chattanooga

Sherman Attacks Georgia

Sept - Atlanta Captured

* Sherman’s March to the SEA *

Eastern Campaign

BATTLES

July - 1st Battle of Bull Run

March - Monitor v. Merrimac

Aug - 2nd Battle of Bull Run

Sept - Antietam

Dec - Fredericksburg

May - Chancellorsville

July 3 - Gettysburg

March – Grant Eastern Commander

* Lincoln Re-Elected

Grant Wears Down Lee

April - Richmond Surrenders

1861

1862

1863

1864

1865

Robert E. Lee - SURRENDERS

slide25

The UNION “Anaconda” Plan

Capture the capital of the Confederacy (Richmond, VA)

Capture the Mississippi R. and Split the Confederacy

Blockade the Confederacy and … STARVE TO DEATH!

Eastern Campaign

Western Campaign

war strategies union v confederate
War Strategies (Union v. Confederate)
  • Union - Anaconda Plan (Three Prong Attack) 1- capture Richmond (capital) 2- capture Mississippi River 3- Blockade the South (starvation)
  • South - War of Attrition fight to make the other side “QUIT”
  • 1st Modern Industrial War
    • New War Technologies (mass production)
    • Trench Warfare
      • Means EXTREMELY HIGH CASUALTIES
slide30

Resources:

North &

the South

slide31

Men

for Duty in the

Civil War

advantage disadvantage
UNION +

+population 22 mil. ( 3 X fighting men)

+90% of Factories

+2/3 Railroads

+3/4 countries Financial resource

+Civil Leadership

Disadvantages

-Poor Military Leadership

Difficult Strategy

CONFEDERATE +

+Defend it’s soil

+Better Military Leadership

+Used to Guns

+”King Cotton”

Disadvantages

-NO factories

-Less Resources

-Poor Civil Leadership

Advantage & Disadvantage
civil war33
“CIVIL WAR”

Western Campaign

BATTLES

Feb - Grant / Tennessee

April - Battle of Shiloh

June - Memphis

- New Orleans

July 4 - Vicksburg Surrenders

Sept - Chickamauga

Nov - Chattanooga

Sherman Attacks Georgia

Sept - Atlanta Captured

* Sherman’s March to the SEA *

Eastern Campaign

BATTLES

July - 1st Battle of Bull Run

March - Monitor v. Merrimac

Aug - 2nd Battle of Bull Run

Sept - Antietam

Dec - Fredericksburg

May - Chancellorsville

July 3 - Gettysburg

March – Grant Eastern Commander

* Lincoln Re-Elected

Grant Wears Down Lee

April - Richmond Surrenders

1861

1862

1863

1864

1865

Robert E. Lee - SURRENDERS