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Worms. http://curezone.com/image_gallery/parasites/all/default.asp?i=1&n=75. Friend OR Foe ?. http://www.quia.com/jg/352695list.html. http://www.dof.virginia.gov/images/anim-worm-crawl.gif. CHARACTERISITCS OF ALL WORMS Invertebrate protostomes Elongated bodies Bilateral symmetry

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    1. Worms http://curezone.com/image_gallery/parasites/all/default.asp?i=1&n=75 Friend OR Foe ? http://www.quia.com/jg/352695list.html http://www.dof.virginia.gov/images/anim-worm-crawl.gif

    2. CHARACTERISITCS OF ALL WORMS Invertebrate protostomes Elongated bodies Bilateral symmetry Cephalization Cerebral ganglia “brain” No respiratory organs (Breathe through skin)

    3. WHERE DO THEY LIVE? http://www.ci.austin.tx.us/sws/images/grasscycling.jpg FREE LIVING _______________ - Found in environment _______________ Live on or in another organism PARASITIC http://curezone.com/image_gallery/parasites/all/default.asp?i=66&n=75 http://www.placervillevet.com/heartworm.htm

    4. PARASITIC WORMS Animal host where ADULT feeds and reproduces = ______________HOST Animal host where LARVAL form lives and feeds =______________ HOST PRIMARY INTERMEDIATE

    5. FLATWORMSPHYLUM: Platyhelminthes FREE LIVINGPARASITIC Planaria Flukes & Tapeworms

    6. PLATYHELMINTHES (Flatworms) ALL FLATWORMS are ACOELOMATES! http://www.lander.edu/RSFOX/310images/310bilatImage.html

    7. http://www.quia.com/jg/352695list.html PLANARIA NOTPARASITES http://www.notatall.blogger.com.br/planaria.jpg

    8. ONE opening digestive system http://www.biologia.edu.ar/animales/images/planaria.jpg GASTROVASCULAR CAVITY(Combination Digestive & circulatory)

    9. EXCRETORY • FLAME CELLS collect excess water and nitrogen waste • Excreted through pores in skin Moving cilia looklike little “flames” http://tim.nccu.edu.tw/biotech/biolife/maricopa/flatwormexcret.gif

    10. REPRODUCTION http://www.notatall.blogger.com.br/planaria.jpg SEXUAL- HERMAPHRODITES(have both ovary & testes in one organism)but trade with a partner ASEXUAL- can use regeneration to grow a new organism from part of parent worm http://faculty.stcc.edu/rapp/biol102/biology_links.htm

    11. PARASITIC FLATWORMSchistosoma NOT IN USA but infects over 250 million people worldwide Worms can block blood vessels to organs causing irritation, bleeding, tissue decay producing disease called = __________________ SCHISTOSOMIASIS http://www.coc.org/focus/food/pics/rice_paddy.jpg

    12. http://www.biosci.ohio-state.edu/~parasite/lifecycles/schistosoma_lifecycle.gifhttp://www.biosci.ohio-state.edu/~parasite/lifecycles/schistosoma_lifecycle.gif HUMAN BLOOD FLUKESchistosoma Adult worms mature & reproduce in blood vessels; eggs travel to intestines or bladder Immature worms burrow through skininto blood vessels Larvae grow tails and leave snail Eggs leave body in urine or feces Larva hatches from egg & infects snail(intermediate host)

    13. http://www.bangkokhealth.com/cimages/tapeworm02.jpg TAPEWORMS Dog tapeworm http://www.biosci.ohio-state.edu/~parasite/pictures/whole_tapeworms.GIF PARASITIC FLATWORM that lives in HOST animal intestines

    14. TAPEWORM VOCAB ____________- Head with suckers and hooks to help hold on inside host SCOLEX http://www.nicksnowden.net/images/Taenia_scolex_drawing.gif

    15. TAPEWORM VOCAB PROGLOTTIDS ___________________- hermaphroditic reproductive structures (contain both male & female sex organs) Containfertilized eggs Shed in feces http://www.biosci.ohio-state.edu/~parasite/labeled_taenia.html

    16. WORM VOCAB TEGUMENT ______________ Thickened PROTECTIVE layer on the outside of worms made of CELLS _______________ NON-CELLULAR PROTECTIVE coating found on the outside of worms CUTICLE http://www.nicksnowden.net/images/Taenia_scolex_drawing.gif

    17. Attaches with SCOLEX http://www.esu.edu/~milewski/intro_biol_two/lab__10_platy_nemat/images/taenia_scolex.jpg http://www.microscopyu.com/galleries/smz1500/images/tapewormscolexsmall.jpg

    18. TAPEWORM http://curezone.com/image_gallery/parasites/all/default.asp?i=66&n=75 NO DIGESTIVE SYSTEM -absorbs nutrients through skin TEGUMENT protects them from host digestive enzymes and immune system

    19. http://curezone.com/image_gallery/parasites/all/default.asp?i=65&n=75http://curezone.com/image_gallery/parasites/all/default.asp?i=65&n=75 TAPEWORMS Can grow up to 30 ft (2000 proglottids) REPRODUCE WITH PROGLOTTIDS Add new proglottids behind scolex Mature ones drop off at tail end Leave body in feces

    20. EX: BEEF TAPEWORM Adults attachinside intestines and absorb digested food Humans eat undercooked meat containing cysts Proglottids burst releasing eggs with larvae inside on ground Proglottids arereleased in feces Cows eat grass; larvae travel through blood vessels; make cysts in muscle http://net.unl.edu/wonderwise/12parasi/a-para.htm

    21. ROUND WORMSPhylum: Nematoda Ascaris Trichinella Hookworms Pinworms Filarial worms http://curezone.com/image_gallery/parasites/all/default.asp?i=1&n=75

    22. NEMATODA (Round worms) ALL ROUND WORMS are PSEUDOCOELOMATES http://www.lander.edu/RSFOX/310images/310bilatImage.html

    23. http://www.hillsdale.edu/Personal/Swinehart/Aquatics/Courses/Biodiv/ascaris_bolus.gifhttp://www.hillsdale.edu/Personal/Swinehart/Aquatics/Courses/Biodiv/ascaris_bolus.gif ROUND WORM AscarisPARASITIC Have a 2 OPENING digestive system Lives in intestines Feeds on passing food http://www.biosci.ohio-state.edu/~parasite/images.html

    24. Females can grow up to 1 ft long & produce 200,000 eggs/day Humans become infected when they eat FOOD or WATER contaminated with eggs Image from: http://www.cibike.org/CartoonEating.gif

    25. http://curezone.com/image_gallery/parasites/all/default.asp?i=0&n=75http://curezone.com/image_gallery/parasites/all/default.asp?i=0&n=75 Most common worm infection WORLD WIDE Mostly in children Estimated 25% of world’s population is infected with Ascaris

    26. ROUND WORMTrichinella Cysts release larvae that burrowinto intestinal wall &mature Humans infected by eating undercooked meat containing cysts   Larvae forms cysts in muscle Adults release larvae that travel through bloodstreamto muscles  http://jeggeri.pri.ee/Kontuur/Loomad/pig.gif http://www.biosci.ohio-state.edu/~parasite/lifecycles/trichinella_lifecycle.html http://www.umm.edu/images/ency/fullsize/trichinella_spiralis_in_human_muscle_2638.jpg

    27. Trichinella TRICHINOSIS- Trichinella infection can lead to disease called = __________________ Symptoms: Muscle pain & stiffnessCan be fatal if cysts form in heart http://sps.k12.ar.us/massengale/unsegm3.jpg

    28. TRICHINOSIS Less than 100 cases/year in USA from PORK Most from eating wild game Curing (salting), drying, smoking, or microwaving meat does not consistently kill infective worms.

    29. PARASITIC ROUND WORMSGuinea worm http://curezone.com/image_gallery/parasites/all/default.asp?i=5&n=75 Found in AFRICA http://curezone.com/image_gallery/parasites/all/default.asp?i=6&n=75

    30. PARASITIC ROUND WORMS Guinea worm http://curezone.com/image_gallery/parasites/all/default.asp?i=5&n=75  Blisters pop and larvae are released in water Female bodies under skin fill with eggs and break open; larvae form blisters  Larvae eaten by small crustaceansHumans infected by drinking water   Larvae mature and adult wormsmigrate to skin http://curezone.com/image_gallery/parasites/all/default.asp?i=6&n=75

    31. FILARIAL ROUNDWORMS are transmitted by insects

    32. DISEASES caused byFILARIAL ROUND WORMS DOG HEARTWORM Elephantiasis Loa Loa - eye worm

    33. FILARIAL ROUND WORMS DOG HEARTWORMCarried by mosquitoes http://curezone.com/image_gallery/parasites/all/default.asp?i=66&n=75

    34. DISEASES caused byFILARIAL ROUND WORMS Elephantiasis Adult worms live in lymph nodes causing blockage so fluid back ups http://www2.niaid.nih.gov/NR/rdonlyres/32FF6DCF-75CF-42D0-BCAE-297EFDE27CF1/0/elephantiasis.jpg

    35. ELEPHANTIASIS Common in tropical countries Adult worms can grow to 4” long http://health-pictures.com/elephantiasis-picture.htm


    37. Mosquito picks up larvae from bloodwhen it feeds Larvae develop into juveniles inside mosquito  Mosquito injects juveniles whichmigrate to lymph nodes and mature  Adult worms live and reproduce in lymph vessels http://www.acm.uiuc.edu/sigbio/project/updated-lymphatic/lymph3.html

    38. FILARIAL ROUND WORMS Loa loa Found in AFRICA http://www.biosci.ohio-state.edu/~parasite/loa.html

    39. Loa Loa worm • Humans are infected with larvae when bitten by loa fly • Larvae mature & crawl around under skin (especially near face) • Adults mate and produce larvae which can be picked up by another fly and transmitted to another person http://maven.smith.edu/~sawlab/fgn/pnb/loaloa.html

    40. PARASITIC ROUND WORMSHookworms http://curezone.com/image_gallery/parasites/all/default.asp?i=1&n=75 Live in intestine; feed on BLOOD http://www.biosci.ohio-state.edu/~parasite/placoconus.html Ancylostoma

    41. HOOKWORM LIFE CYCLE Return to intestines; mature & mate Larvae are coughed up & swallowed;    Adult worms live in intestine and feed on blood Larvae enter body by burrowing through skin on feet & travel to lungs  Eggs leave body in fecesand hatch as larvae in soil  http://www.extension.iastate.edu/polk/health/carbon/fact3.htm http://www.retiredgreyhounds.co.uk/page12.htm http://www.barefooters.org/1995-spring/gifs/mtn_pjl_feet.jpg

    42. Hookworms in Humans • PROBLEMS caused by migrating larvae • Cause intense reaction in skin at site • Infect 40 million people worldwide

    43. Parasitic ROUND WORMSPinworms • Most common parasitic infection IN UNITED STATES • 1/5 children are infected • Worldwide500 million people are infected with pinworms Grow up to ½ inch long http://curezone.com/image_gallery/parasites/all/default.asp?i=16&n=75

    44. Parasitic ROUND WORMS • Adult Pinworms live in intestine • Females crawl out through anus at night and lay 15,000/day eggs on skin • Intense itching causes host to scratch • Eggs under fingernails and on hands are spread back to self or to others when objects/food are touched

    45. SEGMENTED WORMS (PHYLUM: ANNELIDA) ALL SEGMENTED WORMS are EUCOELOMATES!“True coelom” http://www.lander.edu/RSFOX/310images/310bilatImage.html


    47. SEGMENTED WORMS Earthworms play an important role in soil fertility Return nutrients to soil by decomposing dead leaves and organic matter Burrowing allows air and water to penetrate to roots Tunnels loosen soil so roots can grow more easily “intestines of the earth” -Aristotle