Exercise physiology and fitness
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Exercise Physiology and Fitness. Exercise Physiology and Fitness. What is exercise physiology? What is the role of physical activity and exercise in achieving physical fitness and health ? How do you use the FITT formula to design a fitness program? What are the contributors and deterrents

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Exercise physiology and fitness1

Exercise Physiology and Fitness

What is exercise physiology?

What is the role of physical activity and exercise in achieving physical fitness and health?

How do you use the FITT formula to design a fitness program?

What are the contributors and deterrents

to fitness?

Exercise physiology
Exercise Physiology

  • The study of the effects of exercise on the body.

  • Body’s responses and adaptations to exercises

    • System to subcellular level

    • Acute (short term) to chronic (long term) adaptations

  • Population served

    • Elite performer

    • People of all ages and abilities

Physical fitness
Physical Fitness

  • Ability of the body’s systems to function efficiently and effectively.

  • One is “physically fit” if they have the ability to:

    • “carry out daily tasks with vigor and alertness, without undue fatigue, and with ample energy to enjoy leisure-time pursuits and to meet unforeseen emergencies.”

Physical fitness1
Physical Fitness

  • Health fitness

    • Body composition

    • Cardiorespiratory endurance

    • Flexibility

    • Muscular endurance

    • Muscular strength

  • Performance or skill-related fitness

    • Agility

    • Balance

    • Coordination

    • Power

    • Reaction Time

    • Speed

Physical activity physical fitness and health
Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, and Health

  • Hypokinetic diseases

    • Diseases caused by insufficient physical activity, often in conjunction with inappropriate dietary practices.

  • Dose-response debate

    • What kind of activity?

    • How much time spent in activity?

    • At what intensity should it be performed?

    • How often in order to see benefits?

Physical activity and health
Physical Activity and Health

  • 1996: :

    • “Individuals who engage in moderate intensity exercise for at least 30 minutes for most, or preferably all, days of the week, can improve their health and decrease their risk for disease.”

  • Additional health benefits can be derived from increasing the time and/or intensity of physical activity.

  • It’s never too late to be active!

Health benefits
Health Benefits

  • Enhanced cardiovascular function

  • Reduction of many cardiovascular disease risk factors

  • Increase ability to perform tasks of daily living

  • Reduced risk of muscle and joint injury

  • Improved work performance

  • Improved physical appearance,self-image, and sound mental health

Health benefits1
Health Benefits

  • Reduction of susceptibility to depression and anxiety

  • Management of stress

  • Enhancement of self-concept and esteem

  • Socialization through participation in physical activities

  • Improved overall general motor performance

  • Energy

  • Resistance to fatigue

  • Mitigate the debilitating effects of old-age or retain a more desirable level of health for a longer period of time

Energy production for physical activity
Energy Production for Physical Activity

  • Use of ATP as energy to perform muscular activity. Two ways to produce ATP:

  • Anaerobic system

    • Without oxygen

    • High energy expenditure, short time (6-60 seconds)

  • Aerobic system

    • With oxygen

    • Lower rate of energy expenditure, longer period of time (more than 3 minutes)

Principles of fitness training
Principles of Fitness Training

  • Principle of overload

    • To improve, one must perform more than one’s normal amount of exercise.

  • Principle of specificity

    • Programs should be designed in relation to specific goals in mind.

  • Individual’s initial fitness level

    • Assess initial level of fitness to design realistic program and a starting point.

  • Progression of program

    • Increase program as individual becomes adjusted.

Principles of fitness training1
Principles of Fitness Training

  • Individual differences

    • Individual’s work, diet, lifestyle, and management of stress should be taken into consideration.

  • Warm-up, workout, cooldown components

    • Helps prevent injury and prepares body for exercise as well as returns it to a normal state.

  • Safety

    • Information collected from medical screening, and informing individual of environmental conditions

  • Behavioral factors

    • Motivation of individual to adhere to fitness program

Planning a fitness program
Planning a Fitness Program

  • Threshold of training

    • Minimal level of exercise needed to achieve desired benefits.

  • Target zone

    • Defines the upper limits of training and the optimal level of exercise.

  • FITT formula

    • Frequency, Intensity, Time, and Type

    • Manipulate these factors to produce an individualized exercise program.

  • Needs and goals of individual

    • Program should meet the goals of the individual

Fitt formula
FITT formula

  • Frequency

    • Number of sessions each week

  • Intensity

    • Degree of effort put forth by the individual during exercise.

  • Time

    • Duration of activity

  • Type

    • Mode of exercise being performed

Cardiorespiratory endurance
Cardiorespiratory Endurance

  • Body’s ability to deliver oxygen effectively to the working muscles to perform physical activity.

  • Most important component of health fitness.

  • Helps prevent hypokinetic disease.

  • Concerned with the aerobic efficiency of the body.

Cardiorespiratory endurance1
Cardiorespiratory Endurance

  • Frequency: 3 to 5 times per week

  • Intensity: 60% to 90% HRMAX

  • Time: 20 - 30 minutes

  • Type: Aerobic activities

    • Jogging

    • Running

    • Walking

    • Dancing

    • Cross Country Skiing

    • Biking

    • Swimming

Target zone
Target Zone

  • HRMAX=220 bpm - age

  • Target zone = 60% to 90% HRMAX

  • Lower threshold target HR= HRMAX x 60%

  • Upper threshold target HR= HRMAX x 90%

  • Calculations for a 20-year-old

    • HRMAX =220-20=200 bpm

    • Lower threshold = 200 bpm x 60%=120 bpm

    • Upper threshold = 200 bpm x 90%=180 bpm

Muscular strength and endurance
Muscular Strength and Endurance

  • Muscular strength is the ability of a muscle or a muscle group to exert a single force against a resistance.

  • Muscular endurance is the ability of a muscle or muscle group to exert force repeatedly or over a period of time.

  • Maintenance of proper posture; protect joints.

  • Production of power to enhance performance.

  • Use it of lose it!


  • Isometric exercises

    • Muscle exerts force against an immovable object.

    • Static contraction

  • Isotonic exercises

    • Force is generated while the muscle is changing in length.

    • Concentric and Eccentric contractions

  • Isokinetic exercises

    • Contractions are performed at a constant velocity.

    • Cybex and Orthotron machines

Development of muscular strength and endurance
Development of Muscular Strength and Endurance

  • Principle of Overload is critical.

  • Repetition is the performance of a movement through the full range of motion.

  • Set is the number of repetitions of performed without rest.

  • Strength

    • Low number of repetitions with a heavy resistance.

  • Endurance

    • High number of repetitions with a low resistance.

  • FITT


  • Maximum range of motion possible at a joint

  • Joint specific: better range of motion in some joints than in others.

  • Can prevent muscle injuries; improve low-back pain

  • Decreased flexibility can be caused by:

    • Sedentary lifestyle (lack of use of muscles)

    • Age

    • High amounts of body fat

    • Stress


  • Improvement of flexibility

    • Ballistic stretching

      • Momentum generated from repeated bouncing to stretch.

      • Not recommended- may overstretch the muscle.

    • Static stretching

      • Slowly moving into a stretching position and holding for a certain period of time (10-30 seconds; 5 times).

    • Contract-relax technique

      • Relaxing of the muscle to be stretched by contracting the opposite muscle (hamstrings/quadriceps)

  • Measurement of flexibility-goniometer

Conducting fitness programs
Conducting Fitness Programs

  • Provide for cognitive and affective goals as well as physical activity.

  • Make fitness enjoyable.

  • Establish goals and a plan of action to attain them.

  • Monitor progress.

  • Provide for maintenance of fitness.

  • Fitness requires personal commitment.

Effects of training
Effects of Training

Lower oxygen consumption

Lower pulse rate

Larger stroke volume

Lower rise in blood pressure

Slower respiration rate

Lower rate of lactic acid formation

Faster return to “normal”

Effects of training1
Effects of Training

Greater cardiorespiratory efficiency.

Greater endurance.

More “work” can be performed at less cost.

Improvement in fitness components.

Coordination and timing of movements are better.

Physical activity health
Physical Activity & Health

  • Adults - 30 minutes of physical activity equal to brisk walking on most, preferably all, days of the week.

  • Activity of greater intensity will yield greater health benefits.

  • Strength-developing activities at least twice a week.

Deterrents to fitness
Deterrents to Fitness

  • Dietary practices

  • Tobacco

  • Excessive alcohol consumption

  • Use of drugs

  • Inappropriate stress management approaches