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1990 bis heute. Geschichte des amerikanischen Films. domestic BO: 2000: 7,75 Milliarden 2009: 10,6 Mrd . number of tickets: 2002: 1,57 Mrd . 2010: 1,34 Mrd . 6 Majors – 80% BO. Warner Disney Sony Paramount Fox Universal. Mergers & Aquisitions.

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slide2

domestic BO:

  • 2000: 7,75 Milliarden
  • 2009: 10,6 Mrd.
  • number of tickets:
  • 2002: 1,57 Mrd.
  • 2010: 1,34 Mrd.

Claus Tieber

6 majors 80 bo
6 Majors – 80% BO
  • Warner
  • Disney
  • Sony
  • Paramount
  • Fox
  • Universal

Claus Tieber

mergers aquisitions
Mergers & Aquisitions
  • 1993: Viacom merged with Paramount
  • 1995: Seagram kauftMCA/Universal
  • 1995: Disney kauft Capital Cities/ABC
  • 1995: Time Warner und Turner Broadcasting System
  • 2000: Vivendi kauft MCA

Claus Tieber

tentpoles franchises
Tentpoles & Franchises
  • Tentpoles:
    • Media events
    • Promotional tie-ins
    • easy sells in world markets
    • ability to spin off sequels to create a franchise

Claus Tieber

entwicklungen
Entwicklungen
  • Outside investors
  • Reduced studio overheads
  • Tougher deals with talent agents
  • New breed of studio agents, execs who built their reputation outside of Hollywood
  • Dying DVD business
  • Fragmentation of the audience
  • Unknown impact of the internet and social media

Claus Tieber

trends und genres
Trends und Genres
  • Fantasy (Lord of the Rings, Harry Potter)
  • Action Comics (Batman, Spiderman etc.)
  • Theme Park Rides (Pirates of the Caribbean)
  • Märchen (Shrek)
  • Spielzeug (Transformers)
  • Cartoon shows
  • Video games
  • Original stories (Pixar)

Claus Tieber

comicverfilmungen
Comicverfilmungen
  • DC und Marvel
  • DC gehörtzu WB (Superman, Batman etc)
  • Marvel gehörtheutezu Disney (Spider-Man, X-Men, Iron Man etc.)
  • 70er Jahre: vier Superman Filme
  • Erster Batman-Film 1989
  • Marvel: Erfolg von X-Men und Spider-Man
  • Marvel Studios
  • Vertrieben von Paramount

Claus Tieber

family
Family
  • Family Films:
    • Especially well on the home video market
    • G-rated films

Claus Tieber

animation
Animation
  • Dreamworks
    • 1994 von Spielberg, Katzenberg und David Geffen gegründet
    • 2000 Dreamworks Animation (Shrek 2001)
  • Fox Animation Blue Sky (Ice Age 2002)
  • Disney
  • Pixar

Claus Tieber

slide11
3D
  • digital 3D
  • DigitalisierungalsVoraussetzung
  • Single-projector

Claus Tieber

slide12
3D
  • 2009: 16.000 screens worldwide 3D tauglich
  • Avatar
  • 2011: 3SommerHits: Transformers, Pirates, Harry Potter 3D
  • 2013: 7 von 10 top ten BO

Claus Tieber

star salaries
Star salaries
  • First dollar gross
    • A share of the profits after their picture broke even
  • 2006: Firing of Tom Cruise in August
    • Ending Paramount's 14 year relationship with Cruise
    • Paradigm shift in the industry

Claus Tieber

slide14
WB
  • Films are no longer mere movies but brands
  • Harry Potter
  • Warner purchased the studio
  • Soundtrack Atlantic records
  • Cover story EW
  • Advance review Time
  • AOL promotion

Claus Tieber

disney
Disney
  • Katzenberg kündigtbei Disney und gründetmit Spielberg und Geffen Dreamworks
  • 2006: Disney kauft Pixar
  • 2009 Disney kauft Marvel
  • Disney (family)
  • Pixar (animation)
  • Marvel (superheroes)
  • Disney closed down both Touchstone and Miramax

Claus Tieber

slide16
Sony
  • Spider Man 1999
  • Laura Ziskin, producer
  • Sony Pictures Classics: foreign and upscale art films
  • Cloudy With a Chance of Meatballs
    • Sony made the picture available to owners of Sony Bravia TVs ad Blue Ray players with internet capability on demand for a 25$ fee before the DVD window

Claus Tieber

paramount
Paramount
  • 1993: Viacom kauft Paramount
  • Sherry Lansing first woman to run a major studio
  • Co-produce Titanic with Fox
  • 2005 Brad Grey CEO (Producer of Sopranos 1999-2007)
  • Exclusive distribution deal with Marvel Studios
  • 2008 kauftDreamworksSKG

Claus Tieber

slide18
Fox
  • Fox 2000
  • Fox Family Films
  • Fox Searchlight Pictures
  • Fox 2000 led by Laura Ziskin: films for young women
  • Titanic 1,8 Mrd. worldwide
  • Avatar outside investors – Paramount Pictures
  • X-Men
  • Star Wars
  • Ice Age

Claus Tieber

universal
Universal
  • Seagram kauft Polygram
  • Polygram Film Entertainment, independent, incl. Working Title Films
  • Imagine Entertainment (Howard and Brian Grazer seit1986)
  • Focus Feature
  • Animation: Illumination (Despicable Me)

Claus Tieber

distribution
Distribution
  • Jährlichkommen ca. 500 Filme in den USA ins Kino
  • Ca. 100 von den Majors
  • Top grossers 80% domestic BO
  • BO grosses: total sales
  • Distribution gross
  • First dollar gross deal

Claus Tieber

distribution1
Distribution
  • Distribution then and now presents high barriers to entry
  • Worldwide sales force & capital to finance a slate of twenty and more pictures a year
  • Mass production of motion pictures ceased
  • Organize production units to tailor-make individual motion pictures; Hired and let go

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neue rollen der studios
Neue Rollen der Studios
  • Studios as bankers supplying financing
  • As landlords renting studio space
  • As distributor
  • Marketing their blockbusters individually

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exhibition top five chains
Exhibition: Top five chains
  • Regal Entertainment Group
  • AMC Entertainment
  • Cinemark Theaters
  • Carmike Theaters
  • National Amusements

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exhibition
Exhibition
  • Opening day template
  • Opening weekend
  • Create a unique brand

Claus Tieber

exhibition1
Exhibition
  • Theatrical run largest single revenue source
  • Return to the exhibition business by majors
  • 2000er Jahre: New mexaplexes free-standing
  • concession sales 20% of theaters revenue on average, but half of its profits
  • theater advertising (Werbungimkino)

Claus Tieber

publikum
Publikum
  • 3 age groups:
    • 24 und drunter
    • 25-39
    • 40 plus
  • 24 and under:
    • teenagers 12-17
    • young adults 18-24, Generation Y, Millenials, Echo Boomers:
    • third of the population, but nearly half of tickets

Claus Tieber

saturation booking
Saturation booking
  • Saturation booking
  • Harry Potter 2001: 8.200 screens in 3.672 theaters 90 Mill. First WE
  • Spider-Man 2002 7.500 screens, 115 Mill,
  • Avatar 2009 3452 theaters (2.023 in 3D) 73 Mill first WE (2H41Min!)

Claus Tieber

release periods
Release periods
  • holiday season: thanksgiving-christmas
  • Summer: memorial day WE, 4th July
  • 40-50 % of the annual take
  • release blockbusters simultanuaslyworldwide (or nearly so)
  • LOTR: Return of the King: 28Länder in 5 Tagen

Claus Tieber

marketing
Marketing
  • Marketing budget is the single largest item outside the actual production cost, and nearly all the money (80%) is spend on the theatrical opening
  • TV ads: network, cable, spot, syndicated, Spanish language
  • Newspapers
  • Internet
  • Outdoor
  • Radio
  • Magazines

Claus Tieber

trailer teaser
Trailer &Teaser
  • Prime-time 30sec. spot on one of the four American networks: ca. 100.000 $
  • Thursday night: biszu 200.000 $
  • Super Bowl: 3 Mill. $

Claus Tieber

marketing events
Marketing Events
  • ShoWestin Las Vegas in March
  • ShoEast in Orlando in the autumn
  • Comic Con International July San Diego
  • Premieres
  • Toronto Film Festival

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viral marketing
Viralmarketing
  • The Blair Witch Project (1999)
  • Lauched on April Fool's Day 1999
  • Site treated The BW Project as real event
  • 27 theaters – 1000 theaters – 2000
  • 140 Mill. US und 250 Mill Worldwide
  • one of the most profitable films in history

Claus Tieber

internet
Internet
  • Fan Sites:
    • Ain't It Cool News
    • Dark Horizons
  • Reports on test-screenings
  • The Potter Wars
  • LOTR
  • social networks as FB and Twitter

Claus Tieber

ancillary markets home video
Ancillary markets: Home Video
  • 1989: revenue from the sale and rental of videocassettes more than double the domestic BO
  • 1997: DVD, a seller's market 
  • 2006: 24 Mrd.ausdem DVD Verkauf, danachRückgang
  • Videothekenwerdengeschlossen
  • Netflix, Redbox
  • Blockbuster geht 2010 in Konkurs
  • 2008: Blue Ray 

Claus Tieber

ancillary markets
Ancillary Markets
  • Pay TV:
    • HBO
    • Showtime
  • Free TV
  • Packages 25Titelund mehr
  • Netflix
    • 2007: online streamings
  • Redbox
  • PPV/VOD

Claus Tieber

independents
Independents
  • Made by outside producers
  • Avant-garde, museums, festivals
  • Self-financed films
  • Character and script driven works

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new line
New Line
  • 1977: startetFilmproduktion
  • 1984: Nightmare on Elm Street
  • Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles
  • Fine Line 1990
  • Gus Van Sant
  • Jim Jarmusch
  • Robert Altman

Claus Tieber

miramax
Miramax
  • 1979: foundedbyBob and Harvey Weinstein
  • 1989: My Left Foot, Sex, Lies and Videotape, Cinema Paradiso
  • The Crying Game
  • Dimension pictures (Horror)

Claus Tieber

speciality arms of majors
Speciality arms of majors
  • Sony Pictures Classic
  • Disney and Miramax
  • Fox Searchlight
  • Paramount Vantage
  • Focus Feature
  • Warner Independent Films

Claus Tieber

festivals
Festivals
  • ca. 1000 Festivals in Nordamerika
  • Retailers: zeigenFilme, die auf anderen Festivals erfolgreichwaren
  • Sundance
  • Toronto
  • Tribeca Film Festival
  • South by Southwest

Claus Tieber

mini majors
Mini-Majors
  • Lions Gate
  • Summit Entertainment
  • Relativity Media

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zusammenfassung
Zusammenfassung
  • Safety in production
  • Reducing overheads
  • Declining DVD sales
  • PPV/VOD
  • Speciality units closed or sold
  • Mini-majors: Lions Gate: Hunger Games, Twilight

Claus Tieber