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The Road to the Constitution. Quick Review. Declaration of Independence Second Continental Congress Approved July 4, 1776 The Articles of Confederation 1777, our first constitution Weak federal government Shay ’ s Rebellion, 1786-1787. Strengthening the National Government. 1787

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quick review
Quick Review
  • Declaration of Independence
    • Second Continental Congress
    • Approved July 4, 1776
  • The Articles of Confederation
    • 1777, our first constitution
    • Weak federal government
    • Shay’s Rebellion, 1786-1787
strengthening the national government
Strengthening the National Government
  • 1787
  • Problems with the Articles of Confederation
  • States sent delegates to Philadelphia to fix the A.O.C.
  • Rhode Island did not go…they did not want a stronger central government
the constitutional convention
The Constitutional Convention
  • May 25, 1787
  • Independence Hall, Philadelphia
  • An extraordinary group of men
    • 55 men
    • Well-educated
    • Lawyers, merchants, college presidents, doctors, generals, governors, and planters with considerable political experience
who was there who missed it
Who was there? Who missed it?
  • Benjamin Franklin
    • 81, oldest delegate
  • George Washington & James Madison
    • Both would become president
  • Thomas Jefferson & John Adams
    • Both were in Europe
  • Patrick Henry
    • Prominent Virginian
    • He was invited but did not attend; he was against the convention
the boss
The Boss
  • Who was chosen to preside over the convention?
  • George Washington
    • Respected for his leadership during the Rev. War

procedures of the convention
Procedures of the Convention
  • Each state was only allowed one vote
  • Majority votes from all states made decisions
  • All discussions were a secret! Why…?
    • This way, delegates could speak freely, without worry about how the public would react
importance of the constitutional convention
Importance of the Constitutional Convention
  • “I would bury my bones in this city rather than leave the Convention without anything being done.”

-George Mason at the Constitutional Convention

*Everyone knew that failure could mean disaster*

what happened to the
What happened to the…
  • Articles of Confederation???
  • The throw it away, decided to write a new constitution

two opposing plans
Two Opposing Plans


Virginia vs. New Jersey

two opposing plans1
Two Opposing Plans
  • The Virginia Plan
    • James Madison
    • 3 branches of government
    • Bicameral legislature (2 houses), determined by population
    • Favored big states
two opposing plans2
Two Opposing Plans
  • The New Jersey Plan
  • William Patterson
  • 3 branches of government
  • Unicameral legislature (1 house) with equal representation
  • Favored smaller states
two opposing plans3
Two Opposing Plans
  • What was the big issue?
  • How representation in Congress would be decided
  • Larger states wanted more power, smaller states wanted equal power
the great compromise
The Great Compromise
  • Roger Sherman of Connecticut comes up with the answer…a compromise
  • Lower House
    • House of Representatives
    • Determined by population
    • 2 year terms
    • Favored larger states
  • Upper House
    • Senate
    • Equal representation
    • 6 year terms
    • Favored smaller states
  • Also known as… The Connecticut Compromise
  • What is a compromise???
  • A way of resolving disagreements in which each side gives up something but gains something else
more arguing what now
More arguing? What now?
  • Controversy over counting slaves as a part of the population…
  • At this time, there were 550,000 enslaved African Americans, mostly in the South
more arguing what now1
More arguing? What now?
  • Southern states said… part of the population = more representatives for southern states
  • Northern states said… slaves cannot vote or participate in government, they should not give the south more representatives
the three fifths compromise
The Three-Fifths Compromise
  • The conflict was finally resolved…
  • Three-Fifths Compromise
    • Every 5 enslaved persons would count as 3 free people
    • Used for representation in Congress & figuring taxes
another compromise
Another compromise
  • How to elect a president?
  • Some say… “Let Congress pick!”
  • Others say… “Let the people choose!”
  • The compromise…
electoral college
Electoral College
  • A group of people would be chosen by each state to choose the President
  • Each state given a certain number of votes, determined by their representation in Congress
one last compromise
One last compromise
  • Conflicts over commerce & the slave trade
    • Congress could regulate (control) trade between states & other countries
    • However, they could NOT tax exports or interfere with the slave trade for 20 years
finished finally
  • September 17, 1787, finished up the Constitution
  • Delegates signed it, said the Constitution would become the law of the land when…
    • 9 out of 13 states ratified (approved) it
So everyone in the entire United States of America loved the Constitution and every state ratified it immediately and we all had a big party and we all lived happily ever after, right…?
a divided public
A Divided Public
  • Some people liked the Constitution, others did not
  • Federalists = supporters of the new constitution & a strong federal government
  • Federalism = A form of government in which power is divided between the federal (national) government and the states
a divided public1
A Divided Public
  • Some Federalists wrote papers to rally support for the Constitution
  • They were called the Federalist Papers
  • Who wrote ‘em?
    • Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, & John Jay
a divided public2
A Divided Public
  • What about those who didn’t like the Constitution?
  • Anti-Federalists = People opposed to the constitution & a strong federal government
    • “Don’t forget individual rights!”
reaching an agreement
Reaching an Agreement
  • Anti-Federalists wanted to add…
    • The Bill of Rights
  • The Federalists promised to do so, and did
  • New Hampshire, 9th state to ratify
    • June 21, 1788
    • The Constitution went into effect
  • The last state to ratify…?
    • Rhode Island, 1790
1. What is a form of government in which power is divided between the federal (national) government and the states?