What kinds of materials does a cell need to survive? • Water • Oxygen • Glucose (sugar) • “Food” • Amino acids (from meat protein that you ate) • Glucose (from carbohydrates that you ate) • Lipids (from fats that you ate)
What does the cell membrane do? The cell membrane lets things in and out of a cell.
What does the cell membrane do? • The cell membrane lets things in and out of a cell. • Water • Oxygen • Glucose (sugar) • “Food” • Amino acids (from meat protein that you ate) • Glucose (from carbohydrates that you ate) • Lipids (from fats that you ate)
Cellular Transport is the movement of materials across the cell’s membrane.
Where is the cell membrane found? • The cell membrane is found on the outside of animal cells • The cell membrane is found under the cell wall in plant cells.
CELL MEMBRANE Animal Cell Plant Cell
The Structure of the Cell Membrane • The cell membrane is made up of moleculescalled phospholipids Phospholipid
Atom e- p+ n0
Atoms and Molecules • The cell is the smallest LIVING UNIT. The cell is the building block of life. • But the basic building blocks for EVERYTHING in the Universe is the atom. • Atoms are NOT LIVING
Atoms and Molecules • If atoms are put together, they form a molecule. H H O O H H + = + 2 hydrogen atoms + 1 oxygen atom = water
Structural Organization Smallest living unit (Cell Membrane) (Phospholipid) Smallest unit Organism Organ System Organ Tissue Cell Organelle Molecule Atoms
The Structure of the Cell Membrane • Because the cell membrane is made up of 2 layers of phospholipids, it can also be called the phospholipid bilayer. Phospholipid Bilayer
The Structure of the Cell Membrane Outside the Cell Protein Inside the Cell Animal Cell
Selectively Permeable • A cell membrane is selectively permeable, meaning that it will only let certain things go through the cell membrane.
Does the Movement of the Materials Require Energy? • If it DOES NOT require energy, it is called passive transport. • If it DOES require energy, it is called active transport.
Passive Transport • There are 3 types of passive transport: • Diffusion • Osmosis • Facilitated Diffusion
Diffusion • Diffusion is when atoms and molecules move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. • (They move from where they are to where they are not.)
Diffusion This is what diffusion looks like. beginning of diffusion middle of diffusion equilibrium
Fun Fact • The reason that atoms and molecules always move from an area where they are to an area where they are not is because they are trying to reach a state of equilibrium where all of the particles are evenly distributed through out. beginning of diffusion middle of diffusion equilibrium
Diffusion Diffusion can occur through the phospholipid bilayer (it does not require transport proteins or energy) Protein
Of all the things a cell needs, what do you think moves in and out of the cell by diffusion?
What moves in and out of the cell by diffusion? • Oxygen • This is how oxygen makes its way from your lungs to your blood stream and eventually to every cell you have.
Osmosis • Osmosis is the diffusion of water. • (Scientists thought since you are made up of so much water and water is such a special molecule, that it needed its own separate term!)
Osmosis and Diffusion Osmosis and diffusion can occur through the phospholipid bilayer (it does not require transport proteins or energy) Protein
Facilitated Diffusion • When molecules are too big to float past the cell membrane, they must go through proteins that are in the cell membrane instead. • Example: glucose
Facilitated Diffusion Facilitated Diffusion means the molecules must go through the transport proteins in the phospholipid bilayer. Glucose Protein Facilitate = to help So the proteins are helping the molecule cross the cell membrane.
Active Transport • Active transport is when the cell has to use energy to get the transport proteins to pump atoms or molecules into or out of the cell.
Active Transport Facilitated Diffusion means the atoms or molecules must use energyto go through the transport proteins in the phospholipid bilayer. energy Protein
Why Would a Cell Need Energy to Do Active Transport?What is it trying to overcome?
Why Would a Cell Need Energy to Do Active Transport? • Because the cell already has too much of the atom or molecule (it has reached equilibrium) and if the cell requires more, it must use energy to overcome the tendency to reach equilibrium.
What If… • What if the particle is too big to enter or leave the cell through transport proteins? How does the cell get that particle anyway?
What If… • What if the particle is too big to enter or leave the cell through transport proteins? How does the cell get that particle anyway? • Endocytosis and Exocytosis
Endocytosis • In order for a cell to get the giant particle into the cell, the cell must wrap part of its cell membrane around the particle and fold the whole thing into itself forming a vesicle. Cell Cell Cell
Exocytosis • In order for a cell to get the giant particle out of the cell, it must push the vesicle with the particle to the cell membrane and pop the particle back out of the cell. Cell Cell Cell
Homeostasis • A cell does all of the different types of transport to maintain a delicate balance of conditions inside the cell so it can live. This balance is called homeostasis.
Look at Page 79 in the Text • Page 79 in the textbook is a fantastic illustration of all of the different types of transport in the cell.
1. What does selectively permeable mean? • It means that the cell membrane only lets certain things in and out of the cell.
2. How are osmosis and diffusion different? • Diffusion is when particles enter the cell without using energy and without using transport proteins. • Osmosis is the exact same thing as diffusion, only osmosis refers to the movement of water.
3. What is the difference between active and passive transport? • Although both use transport proteins, active transport requires energy and passive transport does not.